- A chemical reaction refers to the process where one or more substances, called reactants, undergo a transformation to form new substances, called products.

- Chemical equations are symbolic representations of chemical reactions using formulas and symbols.

- They help us understand the reactants, products, and conditions involved in a reaction.

- A chemical reaction involves the breaking and making of chemical bonds between atoms.

- For example, when hydrogen gas (H?) reacts with oxygen gas (O?), they form water (H?O), and this is an example of a chemical reaction.

- A chemical equation is a concise representation of a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and symbols.

- For instance, the equation for the reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to form water is: 2H? + O? ? 2H?O.

- A balanced chemical equation has an equal number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.

- It follows the law of conservation of mass, which states that matter cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.

- For example, the balanced equation for the reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas is: 2H? + O? ? 2H?O.

- An exothermic reaction is a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat, light, or sound.

- Example: The combustion of fuels like burning wood or gas produces heat energy.

- A decomposition reaction is a reaction where a single compound breaks down into simpler substances.

- Example: The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) into water (H?O) and oxygen (O?).

- A combination reaction is a reaction where two or more substances combine to form a new compound.

- Example: The combination of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) to form iron sulfide (FeS).

- A single displacement reaction, also known as a displacement or substitution reaction, involves the replacement of an element in a compound by another element.

- Example: Zinc (Zn) reacting with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form zinc chloride (ZnCl?) and hydrogen gas (H?).

- A double displacement reaction occurs when the cations of two different compounds exchange places.

- Example: The reaction between silver nitrate (AgNO?) and sodium chloride (NaCl) forming silver chloride (AgCl) and sodium nitrate (NaNO?).

- An endothermic reaction is a reaction that absorbs energy from its surroundings.

- Example: The process of photosynthesis in plants, where light energy is converted into chemical energy.

- A redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction involves the transfer of electrons between reactant species.

- Example: The reaction of magnesium (Mg) with oxygen (O?) to form magnesium oxide (MgO).

Oxidizing Agent and Reducing Agent:- In a redox reaction, the oxidizing agent causes oxidation by accepting electrons, while the reducing agent causes reduction by donating electrons.

- Examples: In the reaction between iron (Fe) and oxygen (O?), oxygen acts as the oxidizing agent, while iron acts as the reducing agent.

- Corrosion refers to the deterioration of a material, often a metal, due to chemical reactions with its surroundings.

- Example: The rusting of iron when it reacts with oxygen and moisture in the air, forming iron oxide (rust).- Rancidity is the spoilage of food items due to the oxidation of fats and oils present in them.

- Example: When oils or fats in food become exposed to air, they can undergo rancidity, resulting in an unpleasant taste and odor.

- Acids, bases, and salts are three main types of chemical substances that have distinct properties and play important roles in various chemical reactions.

- Acids are substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water, while bases produce hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.

- Salts are compounds formed by the reaction between an acid and a base. They consist of positive ions (from the base) and negative ions (from the acid).

- Acids can be classified as strong or weak based on their ability to dissociate or ionize in water.

- Strong acids are completely ionized in water and release a higher concentration of hydrogen ions. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid.

- Weak acids only partially ionize in water, resulting in a lower concentration of hydrogen ions. For example, acetic acid (CH3COOH) is a weak acid.

- Acids have sour taste, turn blue litmus paper red, and have a pH less than 7. They can conduct electricity when dissolved in water.

- Bases can also be classified as strong or weak based on their ability to dissociate in water.

- Strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), completely dissociate in water, producing a high concentration of hydroxide ions.

- Weak bases, like ammonia (NH3), only partially dissociate in water, resulting in a lower concentration of hydroxide ions.

- Bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery or soapy, and turn red litmus paper blue. They typically have a pH greater than 7 and can also conduct electricity when dissolved in water.

- Alkalies are a specific group of strong bases that are water-soluble and release hydroxide ions readily.

Sodium hydroxide is an example of an alkali.- Indicators are substances that change color in the presence of acids or bases.

- There are three types of indicators:

- Litmus paper: It is a natural dye extracted from lichens. It turns red in the presence of acids and blue in the presence of bases.

- Phenolphthalein: It is a synthetic indicator that is colorless in acidic solutions and turns pink in basic solutions.

- Methyl orange: It is a synthetic indicator that is red in acidic solutions and yellow in basic solutions.

- Acids react with metals to produce salt and hydrogen gas.

- For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with zinc (Zn) to produce zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and hydrogen gas (H2):

2HCl + Zn ? ZnCl2 + H2- Bases also react with certain reactive metals, but the products differ. For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with aluminum (Al) to produce sodium aluminate and hydrogen gas.

- Acids react with metal carbonates and metal hydrogencarbonates to produce salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas.

- For instance, hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to produce calcium chloride (CaCl2), water (H2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2). 2HCl + CaCO3 ? CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

- When an acid reacts with a base, a neutralization reaction occurs. In this reaction, the acid donates H+ ions while the base donates OH- ions, forming water and a salt.

- For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O): HCl + NaOH ? NaCl + H2O

- Metallic oxides react with acids to form salt and water.

- For instance, copper oxide (CuO) reacts with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to produce copper sulfate (CuSO4) and water (H2O).

- Non-metallic oxides react with bases to give salt and water.

- For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and water (H2O).

- Acids and bases have certain common characteristics:

- Both can conduct electricity when dissolved in water, as they produce charged particles (ions).

- They can react with each other to form salt and water (neutralization reaction).

- Acids and bases can cause chemical burns or harm living tissues when concentrated.

- When acids dissolve in water, they release hydrogen ions (H+), making the solution acidic.

- Bases, when dissolved in water, produce hydroxide ions (OH-), resulting in an alkaline or basic solution.

- The strength of acid or base solutions is determined by the concentration of hydrogen (H+) or hydroxide (OH-) ions present. A higher concentration leads to a stronger acid or base solution, whereas a lower concentration indicates a weaker solution.

- pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. A pH value less than 7 represents an acidic solution, while a pH greater than 7 indicates a basic solution. A pH of 7 is considered neutral (neither acidic nor basic).

1. Lustre: Metals have a characteristic shine or lustre, while non-metals generally appear dull. For example, gold and silver exhibit a shiny appearance, whereas sulfur appears dull and non-reflective.

2. Malleability: Metals can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking. This property is known as malleability. For instance, aluminum metal can be hammered into thin foils.

3. Ductility: Metals can be drawn into thin wires without breaking. This property is termed ductility. Copper is a good example of a metal that can be easily drawn into wires.

4. Conductivity: Metals are excellent conductors of heat and electricity because of the presence of free electrons. Non-metals, on the other hand, are poor conductors or insulators. Copper wires are used for electrical connections due to their high conductivity.

5. Melting and boiling points: Metals generally have high melting and boiling points compared to non-metals. For example, iron has a melting point of 1538°C, while sulfur melts at a much lower temperature of 113°C.

6. Density: Metals are generally dense, meaning they have a higher mass per unit volume. Mercury, a metal, is an example of a dense substance.

7. Hardness: Metals are often hard substances. However, their hardness can vary. For instance, iron is harder than lead.

8. Sonority: Metals produce a ringing sound when struck. This property is called sonority. Bells are made of metallic substances commonly because of their sonorous nature.

9. State at room temperature: Metals exist in solid state at room temperature, except for mercury, which is a liquid metal.

1. Reaction with air: Metals can react with oxygen in the air to form metal oxides. For example, when iron reacts with oxygen, it forms iron oxide, commonly known as rust.

2. Reaction with water: Some metals react with water to form metal hydroxides and release hydrogen gas. Sodium reacts vigorously with water, producing sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

3. Amphoteric oxides: Certain metals can exhibit both acidic and basic behavior when they react with oxides.

Aluminium oxide is an example of an amphoteric oxide as it reacts with both acids and bases.4. Reaction with acids: Metals can react with dilute acids to form metal salts and liberate hydrogen gas. For instance, zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. 5. Reaction with solutions of other metal salts: A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution. For example, iron can displace copper from copper sulfate solution, forming iron sulfate and depositing copper.

Metals are found in various forms in nature. They can occur as oxides, sulfides, carbonates, or native metals.

For instance, iron is commonly found as iron oxide (in the form of hematite) or as iron sulfide (in the form of pyrite). Extraction of metals from ores and steps involved:Metals are extracted from their ores through various methods, such as reduction by carbon or electrolysis. The steps involved in the extraction of metals from ores include mining, crushing, concentration, roasting, smelting, and refining. For example, copper can be extracted from its ore, copper pyrite, through the processes of concentration, roasting, and smelting.

During the extraction process, impure metals are obtained. Refining is the process used to remove impurities and obtain pure metals. Some important terms related to this process include electrolytic refining, which uses electrolysis to purify metals, and the use of various chemical agents like carbon or zinc to remove impurities. For instance, electrolytic refining is used to obtain pure copper from impure copper obtained during extraction.

Corrosion is the gradual deterioration of metals due to their reaction with substances in the environment, particularly oxygen and moisture. It leads to the formation of metal oxides or hydroxides. Corrosion can be prevented or minimized through various methods, such as coating the metal with a protective layer (e.g., painting or galvanizing), using sacrificial anodes, or using corrosion-resistant metals like stainless steel.

- Carbon is a chemical element that is unique becau

- Carbon compounds are organic compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.

- These compounds are the basis of all life on Earth and are present in various forms such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

- Carbon has a valency of 4, which means it can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms.

- Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. Carbon can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds depending on the number of electron pairs it shares with other atoms.

- Single bond: When two atoms share one pair of electrons. Example: Methane (CH4).

- Double bond: When two atoms share two pairs of electrons. Example: Ethene (C2H4).

- Triple bond: When two atoms share three pairs of electrons. Example: Ethyne (C2H2).

- The covalent bonds in carbon compounds are strong and result in stable structures.

- Carbon has the unique ability to form long chains, branched chains, and rings with its own atoms. This property is called catenation.

- This characteristic allows carbon to form a wide variety of compounds with different properties. Examples include alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons.

- Carbon has 4 valence electrons, allowing it to form 4 covalent bonds with other elements. This tetravalency makes it capable of bonding with many different atoms and forming stable compounds.

Hydrocarbon, Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Alkane, Alkene, and- Hydrocarbons are compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon atoms.

- Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms. Examples are alkanes like methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and propane (C3H8).

- Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms. Examples are alkenes like ethene (C2H4) and propene (C3H6), and alkynes like ethyne (C2H2).

- Functional groups are specific groups of atoms that determine the unique properties and chemical reactions of organic compounds.

- Examples of functional groups include hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), amino (NH2), and methyl (CH3).

- Each functional group has distinct properties, which allow the compound to participate in specific reactions and exhibit specific characteristics.

- A homologous series is a group of organic compounds that have the same functional group and show a gradual increase in molecular size and complexity.

- These compounds have similar chemical properties and exhibit a regular gradation in physical properties as the molecular size increases.

- Example: The homologous series of alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc.) - all have the general formula CnH2n+2.

Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds, Important Carbon Compounds, Combustion, Oxidation, Addition, and- Carbon compounds exhibit various chemical properties due to the presence of carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.

- Combustion reaction involves the reaction of a substance with oxygen, resulting in the release of heat and light. Example: Combustion of methane: CH4 + 2O2 ? CO2 + 2H2O.

- Oxidation reaction involves the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen from a compound. Example: Ethanol (C2H5OH) oxidizes to ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) by the action of an oxidizing agent like acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7).

- Addition reactions occur when atoms or groups of atoms are added to a carbon-carbon double or triple bond. Example: Addition of hydrogen to ethene: C2H4 + H2 ? C2H6.

- Substitution reactions involve the replacement of one or more atoms in a compound by another atom or group of atoms. Example: Substitution reaction of methane with chlorine: CH4 + Cl2 ? CH3Cl + HCl.

- Carbon compounds have immense significance in our daily lives, as they form the basis of all living organisms and have applications in various industries.

- Ethanol (C2H5OH) is a widely used alcohol and is present in alcoholic beverages. It is also used as a solvent, antiseptic, and fuel.

- Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH), also known as acetic acid, is found in vinegar and has many industrial applications. It is used in the production of plastics, solvents, dyes, and food additives.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid:- Ethanol is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. It is miscible with water and has a boiling point of 78.4°C.

- Ethanol undergoes combustion, oxidation, and esterification reactions.

- Ethanoic acid is a colorless liquid with a pungent smell. It is miscible with water and has a boiling point of 118.1°C.

- Ethanoic acid reacts with metals, carbonates, and alcohol to produce different compounds.

Soaps and Detergents and Cleansing Action of Soap:- Soaps and detergents are types of surfactants that help in cleaning by reducing the surface tension of water and allowing it to penetrate substances.

- Soaps are made by the saponification reaction of fats or oils with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

- Soaps have a polar "head" that is hydrophilic (water-loving) and a nonpolar "tail" that is hydrophobic (water-hating).

- When soap is mixed with water, it forms micelles that trap dirt, grease, and oils in the hydrophobic tails, allowing them to be washed away with water.

- Detergents are synthetic surfactants that have similar properties to soaps but can work effectively in hard water and acidic conditions.

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- Life processes refer to the essential activities performed by living organisms to sustain life. These processes include nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion, reproduction, and growth.

- They are necessary for the maintenance and survival of an organism.

- Nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain and utilize food for energy, growth, and repair.

- In plants, the mode of nutrition is autotrophic, where they can produce their own food through photosynthesis.

They use sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and chlorophyll to convert them into glucose (chemical energy).- In animals, the mode of nutrition is primarily heterotrophic, where they depend on other organisms for food.

- Animals can be classified into three categories based on their nutrition: holozoic (ingestion of solid food), parasitic (feeding on a host organism), and saprophytic (feeding on decaying organic matter).

- Autotrophic nutrition refers to the process where organisms synthesize their own organic molecules using inorganic substances.

- The equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight energy ? C6H12O6 + 6O2

- In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) combine in the presence of sunlight to produce glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2).

- The raw materials for photosynthesis in plants are carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, water (H2O) absorbed through the roots, and sunlight.

- The site of photosynthesis in plants is primarily the leaves, especially the specialized cells called chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll for capturing sunlight.

- Photosynthesis involves two main events: light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions.

- Light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, where sunlight is captured, and energy is converted into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

- Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma of chloroplasts, where ATP and NADPH are used to convert carbon dioxide into glucose through the Calvin cycle.

- Stomata are small openings present on the surface of leaves, stems, and other plant parts.

- They regulate the exchange of gases (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide) and the loss of water vapor through transpiration.

- Stomata also allow the influx of carbon dioxide necessary for photosynthesis.

- Heterotrophic nutrition refers to obtaining nutrients from organic sources, i.e., other organisms or organic matter.

- Example: Amoeba, a microscopic organism, obtains its food through the process of holozoic nutrition. It surrounds and engulfs its food, such as microscopic organisms or organic particles, using finger-like projections called pseudopodia.

- Human beings exhibit holozoic nutrition, where they ingest solid food and digest it internally.

- The human digestive system consists of various organs involved in the digestion and absorption of food.

i) Mouth: Food is ingested, chewed, and mixed with saliva.

ii) Teeth: Teeth help in mechanical digestion by breaking down food into smaller pieces.

iii) Tongue: Tongue aids in swallowing and mixing food with saliva.

iv) Salivary glands: Salivary glands secrete saliva, which contains enzymes for the breakdown of carbohydrates.

v) Esophagus: It carries the food from the mouth to the stomach through peristalsis (muscle contractions).

vi) Stomach: Stomach stores and churns food, secretes gastric juices containing enzymes and acid to digest proteins.

vii) Small intestine: Majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine with the help of enzymes and bile.

viii) Large intestine: It absorbs water and electrolytes from undigested food, forming feces for elimination.

1. Breakdown of Glucose: Glucose is broken down in human beings through various pathways, namely aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.

- Aerobic Respiration: It occurs in the presence of oxygen and releases a large amount of energy. Glucose is completely oxidized into carbon dioxide and water along with the production of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), which is the energy currency of cells.

- Anaerobic Respiration: It occurs without the presence of oxygen and is less efficient than aerobic respiration. Glucose is partially broken down, producing lactic acid or ethanol and carbon dioxide, along with a lesser amount of ATP.

- Fermentation: It is a type of anaerobic respiration that occurs in some microorganisms under certain conditions. For example, yeast undergoes fermentation to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.

- The human respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs.

- The process of respiration involves inhalation (taking in oxygen) and exhalation (expelling carbon dioxide).

- Oxygen is inhaled through the nose or mouth, passes through the trachea, and enters the lungs via bronchi and bronchioles.

- In the lungs, oxygen diffuses into tiny air sacs called alveoli, where it enters the bloodstream.

- Carbon dioxide, a waste product, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli and is expelled during exhalation.

- Breathing is controlled by the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

- When we inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves downwards, expanding the volume of the chest cavity. The intercostal muscles also contract, causing the rib cage to expand.

- This expansion of the chest cavity creates a lower pressure, drawing air into the lungs to fill the increased space.

- During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the intercostal muscles relax, reducing the volume of the chest cavity. This results in the expulsion of air.

1. Plants undergo respiration to release energy from stored glucose for carrying out their metabolic processes.

However, in plants, respiration occurs through a different process compared to human beings.2. Plant respiration takes place in the cells of leaves, stems, and roots using oxygen and glucose.

1. Circulatory System in Human Beings:

- The circulatory system in humans consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

- The heart pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body, and deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for oxygenation.

- It forms a closed-loop system comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries.

2. Blood Circulation in the Human Body:

- Oxygen-rich blood is pumped by the heart to the body's cells through the arteries.

- In the capillaries, exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products occurs between the blood and body tissues.

- Oxygen-depleted blood returns to the heart through veins and is then sent to the lungs for oxygenation.

3. Direction of Blood Flow through the Human Heart:

- Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, then moves to the right ventricle and is pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

- Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle, and is pumped to the rest of the body.

1. Blood Vessels:

- Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's tissues.- Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

- Capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels where exchange of substances between blood and tissues occurs.

2. Exchange of Gases between Alveoli, Blood, and Tissues:

- In the alveoli of the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air diffuses into the bloodstream while carbon dioxide from the blood diffuses into the alveoli for exhalation.

- In tissues, oxygen from the blood diffuses into cells for their energy requirements, and carbon dioxide produced is transported back to the lungs for removal.

- Xylem tissue transports water and minerals upwards from the roots to the leaves via a process called transpiration.

- Phloem tissue carries sugars, nutrients, and other organic substances (photosynthates) produced in leaves to the rest of the plant.

2. Transpiration and Its Functions:- Transpiration is the loss of water vapor from the aerial parts of the plant, mainly through stomata on the leaves.

- It helps in the absorption and transport of water and minerals.

- It cools down the plant by evaporative cooling.

- It aids in the movement of nutrients and maintains cell turgidity.

Excretion System in Human Beings:- The excretory system eliminates metabolic waste products, mainly urea (from the breakdown of proteins), along with excess salts and water.

- Other waste products include carbon dioxide, ammonia, and uric acid.

- The excretory system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

- Filtration: Blood is filtered in the nephrons, where waste products and excess water, along with some useful substances, are separated from the blood to form urine.

- Reabsorption: Useful substances such as glucose, salts, and water are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream from the nephron tubules.

- Secretion: Additional waste substances, such as excess salts and drugs, are actively transported from the blood into the nephron tubules to be eliminated in urine.

- Each nephron is the basic functional unit of the kidney.

- It filters blood, regulates water balance, maintains acid-base balance, and helps in removing waste products through the process of urine formation.

1. An artificial kidney, also known as a dialyzer or hemodialyzer, is a medical device used in cases of kidney failure to perform the function of the kidneys temporarily.

2. It works by filtering waste products and excess fluids from the blood, similar to the natural filtration process carried out by the kidneys.

Excretion in Plants:1. Plants excrete waste products, mostly in the form of oxygen and water vapor, during the process of transpiration.

2. The stomata on leaves facilitate the removal of excess water and oxygen, allowing for the intake of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

1. Reproduction is a biological process by which new individuals of the same species are produced.

2. It ensures the continuity of a species and is necessary for its survival.

3. There are two types of reproduction: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

- It involves the production of offspring without the involvement of gametes (reproductive cells).

- The offspring are genetically identical to the parent.

- Example: Bacteria reproducing by binary fission.

- It involves the fusion of male and female gametes, resulting in the formation of genetically diverse offspring.

- Male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (eggs) are involved.

- Example: Humans reproducing through sexual intercourse.

- It involves the splitting of the parent organism into two or more parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.

- Example: Amoeba dividing into two daughter cells.

- It involves the breaking of the parent organism into fragments, each capable of developing into a new individual.

- Example: Spirogyra breaking into fragments, which grow into new plants.

- It involves the ability of certain organisms to regrow lost body parts or generate a complete individual from a body part.

- Example: Starfish regenerating a lost arm.

- It involves the outgrowth of a small part from the parent organism, which develops into a new individual.

- Example: Yeast reproducing by budding.

- It involves the production of new individuals from vegetative parts of a plant, such as stems, leaves, or roots.

- Examples: Plant cuttings, grafting, and layering.

- It is a technique that involves growing new plants from small plant tissue samples in a laboratory.

- It is used for mass production of plants with desirable traits.

- Example: Cloning of plants.

- It allows us to produce large numbers of plants with desired characteristics, helping in agriculture and horticulture.

- It helps in the preservation of endangered plant species.

- It offers a way to obtain disease-free plants.

- Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants.

- They may be bisexual (containing both male and female reproductive parts) or unisexual (having either male or female parts, not both).

- Example of a bisexual flower: Hibiscus.

- Example of a unisexual flower: Papaya.

- It is the process by which a seed develops into a new plant.

- It requires suitable environmental conditions, such as warmth, moisture, and oxygen.

- As a seed absorbs water, it swells and the embryo inside starts growing.

- The seed coat breaks, and the primary root, shoot, and leaves emerge.

- Humans reproduce sexually, involving the fusion of male and female gametes.

- It requires the development and maturation of reproductive organs.

- Puberty is the period when sexual maturity is reached.

- In males, the testes start producing sperm, leading to the ability to father children.

- In females, the ovaries start releasing mature eggs, making it possible to conceive.

- Testes are male reproductive organs responsible for the production of sperm and the hormone testosterone.

- They are located outside the body in the scrotum, as sperm production requires a lower temperature.

- Vas deferens is a tube that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra during ejaculation.

- Urethra is a tube that carries both sperm and urine out of the body through the penis.

- There are three main glands associated with the male reproductive system: prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands.

- They produce fluids that nourish and protect the sperm during ejaculation.

- Ovaries are female reproductive organs that produce eggs (ova) and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

- Oviducts or fallopian tubes are tubes that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus.

- Uterus, also known as the womb, is the organ where a fertilized egg implants and develops into a fetus.

- It provides a suitable environment for the growth of the embryo.

- Fertilisation is the union of a sperm and an egg to form a zygote.

- It usually occurs in the oviduct or fallopian tube.

- When the egg is fertilized, it develops into an embryo.

- If the egg is not fertilized, it disintegrates and is expelled during menstruation.

- Reproductive health is the overall well-being and proper functioning of the reproductive system.

- It includes physical, mental, and social aspects of reproduction.

- It is crucial for the well-being of individuals and the society.

- STDs are infections spread through sexual contact.

- Examples include HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

- Prevention through safe sex practices and early diagnosis and treatment are essential.

- Contraception refers to methods used to prevent pregnancy.

- Examples include barrier methods (condoms), hormonal methods (birth control pills), intrauterine devices

(IUDs), and sterilization (surgical methods).- Female foeticide refers to the intentional termination of a female fetus, usually through sex-selective abortion.

- It occurs due to gender bias and the desire for male children in certain societies.

- It is illegal and unethical, leading to an imbalance in the male-female ratio and societal consequences.

- Heredity refers to the passing of traits or characteristics from parents to offspring through the transmission of genetic material.

- It is the reason why children often resemble their parents and inherit certain physical or biological traits like eye color, hair type, or blood group.

- Gametic variation: These variations occur in gametes (sperm and egg cells) and are inheritable. They are caused by changes in the genetic material (DNA) during the production of gametes. For example, eye color or height variation inherited from parents.

- Variations play a significant role in evolution. Reproduction allows the accumulation of variations in a population over generations, leading to the formation of new traits and species.

- In asexual reproduction (e.g., binary fission in bacteria), variations arise through mutations that occur during DNA replication. These variations are then passed down to the next generation.

- In sexual reproduction (e.g., in animals and plants), variations arise through the combination and shuffling of genetic material from two parents, resulting in unique combinations of traits in offspring. This creates diversity in the population.

- Variation is crucial for the survival and adaptation of species to changing environments.

- It helps organisms to adapt to new conditions, compete for resources, and avoid extinction.

- For example, variations in the beak size of birds in response to environmental changes can affect their ability to find food and, thus, survival.

- Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who conducted numerous experiments on inheritance using garden pea plants (Pisum sativum) in the mid-19th century.

- He used purebred or homozygous plants, which only exhibit one form of a trait (e.g., either all tall or all short), and crossed them to study the transfer of traits from generation to generation.

- Mendel selected specific traits in garden pea plants for his experiments. Some of the pairs of contrasting characters include:

1. Tall vs. short plant height

2. Yellow vs. green seed color

3. Round vs. wrinkled seed shape

4. Purple vs. white flower color

• Monohybrid cross:- Monohybrid cross involves the study of inheritance patterns for a single trait.

- Homozygous condition: When both alleles for a particular trait are identical (e.g., TT for tallness or tt for shortness).

- Heterozygous condition: When alleles for a particular trait are different (e.g., Tt for tallness).

- Observations of monohybrid cross: Mendel observed that in the F1 generation, all the plants were tall regardless of whether the other parent was homozygous or heterozygous. In the F2 generation, both tall and short plants appeared in a specific ratio (3:1).

- Conclusion: Mendel concluded that traits are controlled by discrete units (later known as genes) that occur in pairs, and the dominant trait masks the expression of the recessive trait.

- Dihybrid cross involves the study of inheritance patterns for two different traits simultaneously.

- Phenotypic ratio with observations: Mendel performed dihybrid crosses between plants differing in two traits, such as seed color (yellow/green) and seed shape (round/wrinkled). He found that in the F2 generation, a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 was observed, indicating the inheritance of both traits independently.

- Conclusion: Mendel concluded that the inheritance of one trait is independent of the inheritance of another. This is known as the principle of independent assortment.

- Traits are expressed through the proteins encoded by genes. Genes carry instructions for making specific proteins or regulating their production.

- These proteins determine various traits such as physical appearances or biochemical functions of organisms.

- Sex determination is the process by which an organism develops as a male or female.

- Factors responsible for sex determination vary among different species, but in humans, it is primarily determined by sex chromosomes.

- Sex chromosomes: In humans, females have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The presence of Y chromosome triggers the development of male traits.

- Heredity refers to the passing of traits or characteristics from parents to offspring through the transmission of genetic material.

- It is the reason why children often resemble their parents and inherit certain physical or biological traits like eye color, hair type, or blood group.

- Somatic variation: These variations occur in body cells and are not inheritable. They may result from external factors like injuries, accidents, or environmental changes. For example, tanning of skin due to exposure to sunlight. during the production of gametes.

For example, eye color or height variation inherited from parents.- Variations play a significant role in evolution. Reproduction allows the accumulation of variations in a population over generations, leading to the formation of new traits and species.

- In asexual reproduction (e.g., binary fission in bacteria), variations arise through mutations that occur during DNA replication. These variations are then passed down to the next generation.

- In sexual reproduction (e.g., in animals and plants), variations arise through the combination and shuffling of genetic material from two parents, resulting in unique combinations of traits in offspring. This creates diversity in the population.

- Variation is crucial for the survival and adaptation of species to changing environments.

- It helps organisms to adapt to new conditions, compete for resources, and avoid extinction.

- For example, variations in the beak size of birds in response to environmental changes can affect their ability to find food and, thus, survival.

- Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who conducted numerous experiments on inheritance using garden pea plants (Pisum sativum) in the mid-19th century.

- He used purebred or homozygous plants, which only exhibit one form of a trait (e.g., either all tall or all short), and crossed them to study the transfer of traits from generation to generation.

- Mendel selected specific traits in garden pea plants for his experiments. Some of the pairs of contrasting characters include:

1. Tall vs. short plant height

2. Yellow vs. green seed color

3. Round vs. wrinkled seed shape

4. Purple vs. white flower color

- Monohybrid cross involves the study of inheritance patterns for a single trait.

- Homozygous condition: When both alleles for a particular trait are identical (e.g., TT for tallness or tt for shortness).

- Heterozygous condition: When alleles for a particular trait are different (e.g., Tt for tallness).

- Observations of monohybrid cross: Mendel observed that in the F1 generation, all the plants were tall regardless of whether the other parent was homozygous or heterozygous. In the F2 generation, both tall and short plants appeared in a specific ratio (3:1).

- Conclusion: Mendel concluded that traits are controlled by discrete units (later known as genes) that occur in pairs, and the dominant trait masks the expression of the recessive trait.

- Dihybrid cross involves the study of inheritance patterns for two different traits simultaneously.

- Phenotypic ratio with observations: Mendel performed dihybrid crosses between plants differing in two traits, such as seed color (yellow/green) and seed shape (round/wrinkled). He found that in the F2 generation, a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 was observed, indicating the inheritance of both traits independently.

- Conclusion: Mendel concluded that the inheritance of one trait is independent of the inheritance of another. This is known as the principle of independent assortment.

- Traits are expressed through the proteins encoded by genes. Genes carry instructions for making specific proteins or regulating their production.

- These proteins determine various traits such as physical appearances or biochemical functions of organisms.

- Sex determination is the process by which an organism develops as a male or female.

- Factors responsible for sex determination vary among different species, but in humans, it is primarily determined by sex chromosomes.

- Sex chromosomes: In humans, females have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The presence of Y chromosome triggers the development of male traits.

- Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye.

- It is produced by various sources such as the Sun, light bulbs, and even fireflies.

- Light plays a crucial role in our everyday lives, allowing us to see objects, colors, and the world around us.

- It travels in straight lines known as rays.

- Reflection is the bouncing back of light when it strikes a surface.

- It occurs when light rays hit an object and rebound in different directions.

- For example, when we look at ourselves in a mirror, we observe a reflection of our image.

2. Refraction:- Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another.

- It happens due to the change in the speed of light when it moves from one medium to another with a different optical density.

- A common example of refraction is the apparent bending of a pencil when placed in a glass of water.

3. Absorption:- Absorption of light occurs when an object takes in or absorbs certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others.

- The absorbed light energy is converted into heat.

- For instance, dark-colored objects absorb more light and heat up quickly in the sun.

4. Transmission:- Transmission is the process by which light passes through a medium or object without being absorbed or reflected.

- Transparent materials, such as glass, allow light to transmit through them with minimal scattering.

- Reflection is the process of bouncing back of light when it hits a surface.

- The laws of reflection state:

1. The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal (a perpendicular line) to the surface at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Virtual and Real Images:

- A real image is formed when the reflected rays of light actually converge and can be projected onto a screen.

- A virtual image, on the other hand, is formed when the reflected rays of light appear to come from a point behind the mirror, but they do not actually intersect.

- A plane mirror forms a virtual image.

- Characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror:

1. The image formed is virtual, upright, and of the same size as the object.

2. The image is at the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front.

3. The image appears laterally inverted, meaning left appears as right and vice versa.

Lateral Inversion and Its Application:- Lateral inversion refers to the phenomenon where left-right reversal occurs in an image formed by a mirror.

- One practical application of lateral inversion is its use in reversing the direction of images in rear-view mirrors of vehicles, allowing the driver to perceive the mirrored scene as if looking directly behind.

- A spherical mirror is a mirror whose reflecting surface is a part of a hollow sphere.

- Properties of a concave mirror:

1. It is a converging mirror as it focuses parallel rays of light after reflection.

2. The reflecting surface is curved inward.

3. The center of curvature (C) is located in front of the mirror.

4. The focus (F) is situated between the center of curvature and the mirror.

- A convex mirror is a mirror with an outwardly curved reflecting surface.

- Properties of a convex mirror:

1. It is a diverging mirror, meaning it spreads out parallel rays of light after reflection.

2. The reflecting surface is curved outward.

3. The center of curvature is behind the mirror.

4. The focus is situated behind the mirror.

- To draw ray diagrams for spherical mirrors, follow these steps:

1. Draw the reflecting spherical surface.

2. Mark the center of curvature (C) and the focus (F) on the principal axis.

3. For each incident ray from the object, draw the three following rays:

- A ray parallel to the principal axis, which after reflection passes through the focus (if concave) or appears to emanate from the focus (if convex).

- A ray passing through the center of curvature, which reflects back along the same path.

- A ray passing through the focus (if concave) or diverging as if coming from the focus (if convex), which reflects parallel to the principal axis.

4. Locate the point where the reflected rays intersect or appear to intersect to determine the position and nature of the image.

- i) When the object is at infinity:

- The rays from the object are parallel to the principal axis.

- The image is formed at the focus (F), is real, and highly diminished.

- ii) When the object is beyond the center of curvature (C):

- The rays from the object converge after reflection.

- The image is formed between the focus and the center of curvature (F and C), real, and diminished.

- iii) When the object is at the center of curvature (C):

- The rays from the object reflect along the same path.

- The image is formed at the center of curvature (C), real, and of the same size as the object.

- iv) When the object is placed between the focus (F) and the center of curvature (C):

- The rays from the object diverge after reflection.

- The image is formed beyond the center of curvature (C), real, and enlarged.

- v) When the object is placed at the focus (F):

- The rays from the object become parallel after reflection.

- The image is formed at infinity, is virtual, and highly magnified.

- vi) When the object is between the pole (P) and the focus (F):

- The rays from the object diverge after reflection.

- The image is formed behind the mirror, is virtual, and enlarged.

- Concave mirrors are used in:

1. Reflecting telescopes.

2. Reflectors in automobile headlights.

3. Shaving mirrors.

4. Solar cookers to focus sunlight onto a cooking vessel.

Ray Diagrams for Images Formed by Convex Mirror:- i) When the object is placed at infinity:

- The rays from the object appear to diverge from the focus (F) after reflection.

- The image is formed at the focus (F), is virtual, and highly diminished.

- ii) When the object is placed between the pole (P) and infinity:

- The rays from the object appear to diverge from behind the mirror after reflection.

- The image is formed behind the mirror, is virtual, and smaller in size.

- Convex mirrors are used in:

1. Rear-view mirrors in vehicles to provide a wider field of view.

2. Surveillance cameras to observe a larger area.

3. ATM machines for security purposes.

- The sign convention for spherical mirrors is as follows:

- Distances are measured from the pole (P) of the mirror.

- The object distance (u) and the image distance (v) are positive when measured on the same side as the incident light.

- The focal length (f) is positive for concave mirrors and negative for convex mirrors.

Mirror Formula and Magnification of Spherical Mirrors:- The mirror formula for spherical mirrors is given by:

1/f = 1/v - 1/u- Where f is the focal length, v is the image distance, and u is the object distance.

- The magnification (m) of an image formed by a spherical mirror is given by:

m = -v/u- The negative sign indicates an inverted image.

- The magnitude of magnification determines whether the image is larger (m > 1), smaller (0 < m < 1), or of the same size (m=1) as the object.

- Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another, causing a change in its direction.

- The laws of refraction describe the behavior of light during refraction. Snell's law is a fundamental principle that relates the angles of incidence and refraction.

- The first law of refraction states that the incident ray, refracted ray, and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

- The second law of refraction, also known as Snell's law, mathematically relates the angles of incidence (?1) and refraction (?2) to the refractive indices (n1 and n2) of the two media involved: n1 sin(?1) = n2 sin(?2)

- Refractive index is a measure of how much light bends when passing through a particular medium.

- It is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum (c) to the speed of light in the medium (v). Mathematically, it can be represented as: Refractive index (n) = c/v

- An optically denser medium has a higher refractive index than the surrounding medium.

Example: When light passes from air (n=1) to water (n=1.33), water is considered optically denser.- An optically rarer medium has a lower refractive index than the surrounding medium.

Example: When light passes from glass (n=1.5) to air (n=1), air is considered optically rarer.- A lens is a transparent optical device that has curved surfaces, typically either convex or concave.

- A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges, while a concave lens is thinner in the middle and thicker at the edges.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is at infinity, is formed at the focus on the opposite side of the lens.

- The image is highly diminished and real.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is beyond 2f1 is real, inverted, and diminished.

- It is formed between the focus and twice the focal length on the opposite side of the lens.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is at 2f1 is real, inverted, and the same size as the object.

- It is formed at 2f1 on the opposite side of the lens.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is between f1 and 2f1 is real, inverted, and enlarged.

- The image is formed beyond 2f1 on the opposite side of the lens.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is at f1 is formed at infinity.

- No real image is formed in this case; only a virtual image is observed.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is between f1 and the optical center is virtual, erect, and enlarged.

- The image is formed on the same side as the object.

- The image formed by a convex lens when the object is between f1 and the optical center is virtual, erect, and diminished.

- The image is formed on the same side as the object.

- Regardless of the position of the object, the image formed by a concave lens is always virtual, erect, and diminished.

- The ray diagrams for a concave lens are similar irrespective of the position of the object.

- The image is formed on the same side as the object.

- The sign convention for lenses follows the Cartesian coordinate system, where distances to the right of the lens are positive and distances to the left are negative.

- The focal length and the object distance are positive for convex lenses and negative for concave lenses.

Lens Formula: The lens formula relates the object distance (u), image distance (v), and focal length (f) of a lens.- It can be represented as:

1/f = 1/v - 1/u Magnification Formula:- The magnification formula determines the size of the image formed by a lens relative to the object size.

- It can be represented as: Magnification (m) = -v/u Power of a Lens:

- The power of a lens is a measure of its ability to bend light and is denoted by the unit diopter (D).

- The power of a lens is the reciprocal of its focal length (f):

Power (P) = 1/f- Refraction is the bending of light when it travels from one medium to another. When light passes through a glass prism, it undergoes refraction and gets dispersed into its constituent colors forming a spectrum.

- A glass prism is a transparent solid with two triangular bases and three rectangular lateral faces. It is often used to study the phenomenon of refraction. the prism.

- The angle of deviation (d) is the angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray after passing through the prism. It depends on the angle of the prism as well as the angle of incidence.

- Total internal reflection occurs when light travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium and the angle of incidence exceeds a critical angle.

- The conditions necessary for total internal reflection include:

1. Light must travel from a denser medium to a rarer medium.

2. The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle.

- The critical angle is the minimum angle of incidence that allows for total internal reflection to occur. It depends on the refractive indices of the two mediums involved.

- A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that appears in the sky when sunlight is refracted, reflected, and dispersed by water droplets in the atmosphere.

- It consists of a spectrum of colors arranged in an arc, with red on the outer edge and violet on the inner edge.

- Atmospheric conditions such as rain and sunlight are necessary for a rainbow to form.

- The appearance of a rainbow is an example of the dispersion of light through refraction and internal reflection within water droplets.

- The twinkling of stars is caused by the phenomenon of atmospheric refraction. As starlight passes through the Earth's atmosphere, it undergoes refraction due to variations in air density.

- The varying density causes the path of starlight to bend slightly, resulting in the star appearing to twinkle or flicker.

- However, planets commonly appear steady as they have a larger apparent size and emit their own light.

- Scattering is the phenomenon where light is deviated in different directions by particles or molecules in the medium through which it passes.

- The Tyndall effect is the scattering of light by colloidal particles or small particles suspended in a transparent medium. It is responsible for making the path of light visible.

- For example, when a beam of sunlight passes through a dusty room, the dust particles scatter the light and make the path of the light beams visible.

- The color of scattered light depends on the size of the scattering particles and the wavelength of the incident light.

- When the wavelength of incident light is shorter, such as blue or violet light, it is scattered more compared to longer wavelengths like red or orange. This leads to the blue sky appearance.

- Anger signs are often made in red color as they are easily visible due to scattering being less effective for red light.

- In space, astronauts observe the sky as completely black. This is because there is no atmosphere to scatter sunlight, resulting in no scattered light to reach their eyes.

- Clouds appear white as they scatter sunlight in all directions, making them appear bright.

- During sunrise or sunset, the sun's light passes through more of the Earth's atmosphere, causing the shorter blue and green wavelengths to scatter away. This results in the sun appearing red or orange.

- Charge is a fundamental property of matter, which can be positive or negative.

- It is denoted by the symbol "Q" and the unit of charge is the coulomb (C).

- When the number of electrons in an object is more than the number of protons, it acquires a negative charge. Conversely, if there are more protons than electrons, the object becomes positively charged.

- Current refers to the flow of electric charge in a conductor.

- It is measured in amperes (A) and is denoted by the symbol "I".

- Current can flow either in a closed loop (circuit) or through a specific medium, such as a wire.

- Potential difference, also known as voltage, is the difference in electric potential energy per unit charge between two points.

- It is measured in volts (V).

- A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit. It is connected in parallel to the component or points where the potential difference is to be measured.

- Resistor: Symbolized by a zigzag line.

- Capacitor: Symbolized by two parallel lines.

- Battery: Shown as a long line with a shorter line and plus/minus signs.

- Light Bulb: Represented by a circle with a cross inside.

- Switch: Displayed as a curved line with an open gap.

- Ohm's law states that the current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it, at a constant temperature.

- Mathematically, Ohm's law is expressed as: V = I * R

- V: Potential difference (V)

- I: Current (A)

- R: Resistance (?)

- The V-I graph for Ohm's law is a straight line passing through the origin.

- The slope of the graph represents the resistance of the conductor.

- A steeper slope indicates a higher resistance, while a gentler slope implies a lower resistance.

- Ohm is the unit of resistance. A resistor is a component that provides resistance to the flow of current.

- A rheostat is a variable resistor that can change its resistance value using a sliding contact or a rotating knob.

Factors on Which the Resistance of a Conductor Depends and- The resistance of a conductor depends on its length, cross-sectional area, and the material from which it is made.

- Resistivity (?) is a property of materials that quantifies their resistance to the flow of electric current. It determines how easily a material conducts electricity.

Resistors in Series and Total/Resultant/Overall/Effective- When resistors are connected in series, they are arranged sequentially so that the current has only one path to flow through.

- The total resistance in series is equal to the sum of individual resistances: R_total = R1 + R2 + R3...

- When resistors are connected in parallel, they are arranged so that each resistor has its own separate path for the current to flow through.

- The reciprocal of the total resistance in parallel is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of individual resistances: (1/R_total) = (1/R1) + (1/R2) + (1/R3)...

- In a parallel combination, each resistor has the same potential difference across it, whereas in a series combination, the potential difference is divided among the resistors.

- If one resistor in a series combination fails, it will interrupt the entire circuit. However, in a parallel combination, other resistors can still function even if one of them fails.

- When an electric current passes through a conductor, it generates heat due to the resistance encountered by the current flow.

- Joule's law states that the heat (H) produced in a conductor is directly proportional to the square of the current (I), resistance (R), and the time (T) for which the current flows: H = (I² * R * T)

- The filament of an electric bulb is made up of tungsten because it has a high melting point and high resistivity.

- When current flows through the tungsten filament, it heats up and emits light due to its high resistance.

- An electric fuse is a safety device used to protect electrical circuits from excessive current.

- It contains a thin wire made of a material with low melting point, such as tin or copper.

- If the current exceeds a safe limit, the wire in the fuse heats up and melts, breaking the circuit and preventing damage to the electrical components.

- Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is consumed or produced in a circuit.

- It is measured in watts (W) and is calculated by multiplying the potential difference (V) across a component by the current (I) flowing through it: P = V * I.

1. Magnetic effects of electric current refer to the phenomena that occur when an electric current is passed through a conductor and produces a magnetic field around it.

2. This concept was first discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 when he observed that a compass needle placed near a wire carrying electric current deflected from its original position.

3. It laid the foundation for the understanding of electromagnetism and has numerous practical applications in our daily lives.

Properties of Magnet and Characteristics of Field Lines and1. A magnet is an object that can attract certain materials, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt.

2. It has two poles, a north pole and a south pole, which exert magnetic forces on each other. Like poles repel, and unlike poles attract.

3. The magnetic field lines are imaginary lines that represent the direction and intensity of the magnetic field around a magnet.

4. The field lines emerge from the magnet's north pole, loop around the magnet, and enter the south pole. They do not cross each other.

5. The magnetic field is stronger near the poles and weaker as we move away from them.

1. The right-hand thumb rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic field around a straight current-carrying conductor.

2. If we curl our right hand fingers in the direction of the current, then the extended thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field lines.

3. For example, if the current is flowing from north to south in a conductor, the magnetic field lines will wrap around the conductor in a clockwise direction when viewed from above.

1. When current flows through a circular loop, it generates a magnetic field that is concentric with the loop.

2. The direction of the magnetic field inside the loop can be determined using the right-hand thumb rule mentioned earlier.

3. The strength of the magnetic field depends on factors such as the magnitude of the current passing through the loop and the radius of the loop.

4. Increasing the current or the number of turns in the loop will result in a stronger magnetic field. Similarly, increasing the radius of the loop will also increase the magnetic field strength.

1. A solenoid is a long coil of wire wound in the form of a helix.

2. When an electric current passes through the solenoid, it produces a magnetic field along its axis.

3. The direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid can be determined using the right-hand thumb rule.

4. For example, if you grip the solenoid with your right hand so that your fingers wrap around it in the direction of the current, your thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid.

1. An electromagnet is a temporary magnet created by passing an electric current through a coil of wire wound around an iron core.

2. The iron core becomes magnetized when the current flows through the coil, and it loses its magnetism when the current is switched off.

3. Electromagnets have widespread applications, such as in electric bells, electric relays, MRI machines, and electric motors.

1. Unlike electromagnets, permanent magnets retain their magnetism even without any external influence.

2. They are made of materials with naturally aligned magnetic domains, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt.

3. Permanent magnets are widely used in various devices, including speakers, refrigerators, and generators.

1. When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the conductor.

2. This force is perpendicular to both the direction of the current and the magnetic field.

3. The magnitude of the force can be determined using the formula F = BIL, where F represents the force, B is the magnetic field strength, I is the current, and L is the length of the conductor.

1. Fleming's left-hand rule states that if we stretch the thumb, index finger, and middle finger of our left hand mutually perpendicular to each other, the index finger represents the direction of the magnetic field, the thumb represents the direction of the motion of the conductor, and the middle finger represents the direction of the induced current.

2. This rule is applicable to situations like the functioning of a galvanometer used in MRI machines, where a magnetic field, current, and motion of conductor interact.

1. An electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by utilizing the magnetic effects of electric current.

2. It consists of a coil of wire, called an armature, which rotates in a magnetic field.

3. The armature is connected to a commutator, which is a split ring that helps in changing the direction of the current in the armature coil.

4. As the direction of the current changes, the magnetic field created by the armature interacts with the external magnetic field, resulting in a rotational motion.

1. Electric motors have extensive commercial use in various industries.

2. They are used in appliances like refrigerators, washing machines, fans, and air conditioners.

3. Electric motors are also crucial in industrial machinery, electric vehicles, and robotics.

Electromagnetic Induction, Fleming's Right Hand Rule:1. Electromagnetic induction is the process of generating an electric current in a conductor by varying the magnetic field around it.

2. Fleming's right-hand rule is used to determine the direction of the induced current. If we point the thumb of our right hand in the direction of motion of the conductor, and the fingers represent the direction of the magnetic field, the upward extended thumb represents the direction of the induced current.

1. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction.

2. It consists of a coil of wire, called an armature, that rotates within a magnetic field.

3. As the armature rotates, it cuts the magnetic field lines, inducing an electric current in the coil.

4. The direction of the induced current changes with each half-rotation of the armature, producing an alternating current (A.C.) in most generators.

Alternate Current (A.C.) and Advantage of A.C. and1. Alternating current (A.C.) is an electric current that periodically changes direction. Advantage of A.C.:

1. A.C. can be transmitted over long distances with relatively low energy losses, making it suitable for distributing electricity in power grids.

2. It is easily converted to different voltages using transformers.

3. A.C. is more suitable for operating electric motors, which are commonly used in various industrial and domestic applications.

1. A.C. may cause greater risk of electric shock compared to direct current (D.C.).

2. The design of A.C. circuits can be more complex compared to D.C. circuits.

Direct Current (D.C.), Domestic Electric Circuits, Earth1. Direct current (D.C.) is an electric current that flows in only one direction.

2. Domestic electric circuits often use D.C. for low-voltage applications, such as batteries and electronic devices.

3. A protection measure in electric circuits involves the use of earth wires, which provide a safe path for electric current to flow into the ground in the event of a fault.

4. A short circuit occurs when a low-resistance path is formed between the live and neutral wires, resulting in a large amount of current flowing through a circuit.

1. Overloading happens when the total electrical load connected to a circuit exceeds its maximum capacity.

2. Causes of overloading include connecting too many appliances to a single circuit, using high-power devices, or using faulty appliances.

3. Safety devices like fuses and circuit breakers are installed in electrical circuits to protect against overloading and short circuits. They automatically cut off the flow of current when an abnormal situation is detected, preventing potential hazards.

- Euclid's Division Lemma states that for any positive integers a and b, there exist unique integers q and r such that a = bq + r, where 0 ? r < b.

- This lemma is used to establish the division algorithm and to prove fundamental properties of integers.

Example: If we want to divide 17 by 3 using Euclid's Division Lemma, we find that 17 = 3 × 5 + 2. Here, a = 17, b = 3, q = 5, and r = 2.- Euclid's Division Algorithm is based on the Euclid's Division Lemma and is used to find the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of two positive integers.

- According to the algorithm, we repeatedly apply the division lemma until we obtain a remainder of 0. The divisor at this step will be the HCF of the given integers.

Example: To find the HCF of 18 and 24 using Euclid's Division Algorithm, we apply the division lemma as follows:- 24 = 18 × 1 + 6

- 18 = 6 × 3 + 0

The remainder is 0, so the divisor at this step (6) is the HCF of 18 and 24.- The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every positive integer greater than 1 can be expressed as a unique product of prime numbers, up to the order of those primes.

- This theorem helps establish the uniqueness of prime factorization. Example: Let's consider the number 60. Its prime factorization using the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic is: 60 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5.

- Irrational numbers are real numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Their decimal representations are non-terminating and non-repeating.

- Some common examples of irrational numbers include ?2, ?, and e.

Example: The value of ?2 is an irrational number. When we try to express it as a decimal, it continues infinitely without terminating or repeating: ?2 ? 1.41421356...- Rational numbers are real numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Their decimal representations are either terminating or repeating.

- For example, the rational number 3/4 can be expressed as 0.75, which terminates after two decimal places.

Example: The fraction 2/7 is a rational number. When we convert it to a decimal, we get a repeating decimal: 2/7 ? 0.2857142857...- A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of variables, coefficients, and exponents.

- It is made up of terms that are either added or subtracted.

- Each term in a polynomial has a variable raised to a non-negative exponent and multiplied by a coefficient.

- Examples:

- 3x^2 + 5x + 2 is a polynomial with three terms (3x^2, 5x, 2).

- 2xy^2 - 7x + 4 is also a polynomial with three terms (2xy^2, -7x, 4).

- The zero polynomial, denoted as 0, is a polynomial with all its coefficients equal to zero.

- It has no variables or exponents, only the constant 0.

- Examples:

- 0 is a zero polynomial.

- 0x^3 + 0x^2 + 0x + 0 is another representation of the zero polynomial.

- A zero of a polynomial is a value that makes the polynomial equal to zero.

- When a polynomial is evaluated with a zero, it gives a result of zero.

- Examples:

- Let's consider the polynomial 2x - 6. By substituting x = 3, we get 2(3) - 6 = 0. Therefore, x = 3 is a zero of the polynomial.

- Similarly, if we substitute x = -1, the polynomial becomes 2(-1) - 6 = -2 - 6 = -8, which is not zero. Hence, x = -1 is not a zero of the polynomial.

- The division algorithm helps us divide a polynomial by another polynomial and obtain a quotient and remainder.

- Given two polynomials, dividend and divisor, we perform long division to find the quotient and remainder.

- The divisor must not be the zero polynomial.

- Example:

- Let's divide the polynomial 3x^3 - 10x^2 + 2x - 5 by x - 2. - By using long division, we obtain:

3x^2 + 4x + 12 + (remainder -23)- The quotient is 3x^2 + 4x + 12, and the remainder is -23.

- A pair of linear equations in two variables is a set of two equations involving two variables, usually represented as x and y.

- The general form of a linear equation is ax + by = c, where a, b, and c are constants.

- Graphs can be used to represent a pair of linear equations.

- Each equation corresponds to a straight line on a coordinate plane.

- The solution of the pair of equations is the point of intersection of their corresponding lines.

Example: Consider the equations: 2x + 3y = 8 x - 4y = 7 By plotting the graphs of these two lines, we can find their point of intersection, i.e., the solution.- In this method, we solve one equation for one variable and substitute it into the other equation to find the value of the remaining variable.

Example: Solve the system of equations: x + y = 7 2x - 3y = 5 We can solve the first equation for x, such as x = 7 - y, substitute it in the second equation, and solve for y. Then we substitute the value of y into the first equation to find the value of x.- In this method, we eliminate one variable by multiplying one or both equations with suitable numbers so that the coefficients of one variable in both equations become the same.

- Then, we subtract or add these equations to eliminate one variable and solve for the other variable.

Example: Solve the system of equations: 2x - 3y = 1 4x + y = 11 We can multiply the first equation by 4 and the second equation by 2 to make the coefficients of x in both equations equal. Then, subtract the two equations to eliminate x and solve for y. Substituting the value of y back in one equation gives us the value of x.- Linear equations in two variables can be used to solve real-life problems.

- By converting the problem statements into equations, we can find the unknown values.

Example: A sum of money is divided between two friends A and B in the ratio of 3:4. If the total amount is $560, find the share of each friend. Let the share of A be 3x and the share of B be 4x. The sum of their shares should be $560, so we can form an equation: 3x + 4x = 560. Solving this equation gives us the value of x, and we can calculate the shares of A and B.- A quadratic equation is a polynomial equation of degree 2, which means the highest power of the variable is 2.

- It is expressed in the general form: ax^2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b, and c are constants.

Roots of a Quadratic Equation:- The roots of a quadratic equation are the values of the variable that satisfy the equation and make it true.

- Quadratic equations can have zero, one, or two distinct roots depending on the discriminant (b^2 - 4ac).

1. Zero Roots: If the discriminant (b^2 - 4ac) is negative, the quadratic equation has no real solutions. For example, x^2 + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

2. One Root: If the discriminant is zero, the quadratic equation has one real solution. For example, x^2 - 4x + 4 = 0 has one root, x = 2.

3. Two Roots: If the discriminant is positive, the quadratic equation has two distinct real solutions.

For example, x^2 - 5x + 6 = 0 has two roots, x = 2 and x = 3.1. Factorization: If the quadratic equation can be factored, we can solve it by setting each factor equal to zero and finding the roots. For example, x^2 - 5x + 6 = 0 can be factored as (x - 2)(x - 3) = 0, giving the roots x = 2 and x = 3.

2. Quadratic Formula: The quadratic formula is a general formula used to find the roots of any quadratic equation. For a quadratic equation ax^2 + bx + c = 0, the formula is x = (-b ± ?(b^2 - 4ac)) / (2a). For example, for the equation x^2 - 5x + 6 = 0, using the quadratic formula gives the roots x = 2 and x = 3.

- The discriminant is a value derived from the coefficients of a quadratic equation and helps determine the nature and number of roots.

- The discriminant is calculated as b^2 - 4ac.

- The nature of the roots is determined based on the value of

the1. If the discriminant is negative, the equation has no real roots (complex roots).

2. If the discriminant is zero, the equation has one real root (repeated root).

3. If the discriminant is positive, the equation has two distinct real roots.

1. If the discriminant is negative, the quadratic equation has no real roots. For example, x^2 + 4 = 0 has no real roots.

2. If the discriminant is zero, the quadratic equation has one real root. For example, x^2 - 4x + 4 = 0 has one root, x = 2.

3. If the discriminant is positive, the quadratic equation has two distinct real roots. For example, x^2

- 5x + 6 = 0 has two roots, x = 2 and x = 3.

- An arithmetic progression is a sequence in which each term after the first is obtained by adding a constant difference 'd' to the preceding term.

- The first term of the AP is denoted as 'a' and the common difference is denoted as 'd'.

- The nth term (a?) of an AP can be calculated using the formula: a? = a + (n-1)d.

- Here, 'a' is the first term, 'd' is the common difference, and 'n' is the term number.

Example: Find the 7th term of an AP 3, 7, 11, 15, ...- The first term (a) is 3 and the common difference (d) is 4.

- Using the formula, a? = 3 + (7-1)4 = 3 + 6 * 4 = 27.

- The sum of the first 'n' terms of an AP can be calculated using the formula: S? = (n/2)(2a + (n-1)d).

- Here, 'S?' represents the sum of 'n' terms.

Example: Find the sum of the first 10 terms of an AP 2, 5, 8, 11, ...- The first term (a) is 2, the common difference (d) is 3, and the number of terms (n) is 10.

- Using the formula, S?? = (10/2)(2(2) + (10-1)(3)) = 5(4 + 27) = 155.

- The nth term from the last in an AP can be calculated using the formula: a? = l - (n-1)d.

- Here, 'l' represents the last term and 'n' represents the term number.

Example: Find the 5th term from the end of an AP 19, 16, 13, 10, ...- The last term (l) is 10, and the common difference (d) is -3.

- Using the formula, a? = 10 - (5-1)(-3) = 10 + 4(3) = 22.

- The number of terms in an AP can be calculated using the formula: n = (l - a + d) / d.

- Here, 'l' represents the last term, 'a' represents the first term, and 'd' represents the common difference.

Example: Find the number of terms in an AP 4, 9, 14, 19, ..., 49.- The first term (a) is 4, the last term (l) is 49, and the common difference (d) is 5.

- Using the formula, n = (49 - 4 + 5) / 5 = 50 / 5 = 10.

- A triangle is a closed figure with three sides, three angles, and three vertices.

- Sum of angles in a triangle is always 180 degrees.

- Types of triangles based on side lengths:

i. Equilateral triangle: All sides are equal in length (example: an equilateral triangle with sides of length 4 cm).

ii. Isosceles triangle: Two sides are equal in length (example: an isosceles triangle with sides of length 5 cm, 5 cm, and 6 cm).

iii. Scalene triangle: All sides have different lengths (example: a scalene triangle with sides of length 3 cm, 4 cm, and 5 cm).

i. Acute triangle: All angles are less than 90 degrees (example: an acute triangle with angles 45°, 45°, and 60°).

ii. Obtuse triangle: One angle is greater than 90 degrees (example: an obtuse triangle with angles 100°, 30°, and 50°).

iii. Right-angled triangle: One angle is exactly 90 degrees (example: a right-angled triangle with angles 90°, 40°, and 50°).

- Two triangles are said to be congruent if their corresponding sides and angles are equal.

- Congruent triangles have the same shape and size.

- Congruence criteria include Side-Side-Side (SSS), Side-Angle-Side (SAS), Angle-Side-Angle (ASA), Angle-Angle-Side (AAS), and Hypotenuse-Leg (HL).

- Similar triangles have the same shape but different sizes.

- Two triangles are said to be similar if their corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are proportional.

- Similarity criteria include Angle-Angle (AA), Side-Side-Side (SSS), and Side-Angle-Side (SAS).

- In a right-angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

- It can be represented as: a² + b² = c², where 'a' and 'b' are the lengths of the perpendicular sides, and 'c' is the length of the hypotenuse.

- The sum of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third

side (Triangle Inequality Property).- The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of its interior opposite angles.

- The medians, altitudes, and perpendicular bisectors of a triangle have specific properties which are discussed in detail.

- Area of a triangle: 1/2 * base * height or as derived from Heron's formula.

- Heron's formula: square root of (s * (s-a) * (s-b) * (s-c)), where 's' is the semi-perimeter and 'a', 'b', 'c' are the lengths of the sides.

- The Cartesian plane is a two-dimensional grid formed by two perpendicular number lines called the x-axis and y-axis.

- The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect is called the origin denoted as (0,0).

- Points on the plane are represented as ordered pairs (x, y) where x represents the horizontal distance and y represents the vertical distance from the origin.

- The distance between any two points (x?, y?) and (x?, y?) on the plane can be found using the distance formula:

Distance = ?((x? - x?)² + (y? - y?)²)- For example, find the distance between points (2, 3) and (5, 7):

Distance = ?((5 - 2)² + (7 - 3)²) = ?(3² + 4²) = ?(9 + 16) = ?25 = 5- The section formula allows us to find the coordinates of a point dividing a line segment into a specified ratio.

- For example, divide the line segment joining points A(1, 3) and B(5, 9) in the ratio 2:3: x = (3*1 + 2*5) / (2+3) = 13/5 y = (3*3 + 2*9) / (2+3) = 24/5 The point dividing AB in a 2:3 ratio is (13/5, 24/5).

- The midpoint of a line segment with endpoints (x?, y?) and (x?, y?) can be found using the midpoint formula:

Midpoint = ((x? + x?) / 2, (y? + y?) / 2)- For example, find the midpoint of the line segment joining points P(2, 4) and Q(6, 10):

x = (2 + 6) / 2 = 4 y = (4 + 10) / 2 = 7 The midpoint of PQ is (4, 7).- The slope of a line measures its steepness and is given by the formula:

Slope = (change in y-coordinates) / (change in x-coordinates)- For example, find the slope of a line passing through points R(3, 5) and S(1, 9):

Slope = (9 - 5) / (1 - 3) = 4 / -2 = -2- Lines with the same slope are parallel, as they never intersect.

- Lines with slopes that are negative reciprocals (multiplicative inverses) of each other are perpendicular and will intersect at a right angle.

1. Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the angles and sides of triangles. It helps us calculate unknown angles or sides of a triangle when we have information about the other angles or sides.

2. Trigonometry is based on six fundamental trigonometric ratios, which are commonly abbreviated as sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan), cosecant (cosec), secant (sec), and cotangent (cot).

3. These trigonometric ratios are defined by comparing the ratios of the sides of a right-angled triangle. The three sides of a right triangle are the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle), the adjacent side (the side adjacent to the given angle), and the opposite side (the side opposite to the given angle).

4. The basic trigonometric ratios are defined as follows:

- Sine (sin) = Opposite/Hypotenuse

- Cosine (cos) = Adjacent/Hypotenuse

- Tangent (tan) = Opposite/Adjacent

- Cosecant (cosec) = 1/Sine

- Secant (sec) = 1/Cosine

- Cotangent (cot) = 1/Tangent

5. Trigonometric ratios can be used to find the values of unknown

angles or sides in a right triangle. For example, if we know the lengths of two sides in a right triangle, we can use the trigonometric ratios to find the unknown side length or angle measure.6. Trigonometry also helps in solving real-life problems involving distances, heights, angles of elevation or depression, and navigation.

7. The trigonometric ratios are applicable not only to right-angled triangles but also to any angle in a coordinate system called the unit circle. This allows us to extend the application of trigonometry to angles greater than 90 degrees and to negative angles.

8. Trigonometric ratios can be represented graphically using trigonometric curves such as the sine curve, cosine curve, and tangent curve. These curves help visualize the periodic nature of trigonometric functions.

9. The concept of trigonometry is widely used in various fields such as engineering, physics, astronomy, architecture, and navigation. For example, trigonometry is used in surveying to measure distances and angles accurately.

10. Trigonometry is the basis for more advanced concepts like trigonometric identities, equations, and inverse trigonometric functions. These advanced concepts further expand the applications of trigonometry in solving complex mathematical problems.

- Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the angles and sides of triangles.

- Elevation refers to the angle of elevation, which is the angle formed between the line of sight and the horizontal line when looking upward.

- Depression refers to the angle of depression, which is the angle formed between the line of sight and the horizontal line when looking downward.

- Trigonometry can be used to determine the height or distance of an object when the angle of elevation or depression is known, along with one of the other two variables.

- For example, if a person standing at a certain distance from a tree measures the angle of elevation to the top of the tree, and also knows their own height, they can use trigonometry to calculate the height of the tree.

- Trigonometry can also be used to solve triangles when certain angles and sides are known.

- The most commonly used trigonometric ratios are sine, cosine, and tangent.

- The sine ratio calculates the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse, the cosine ratio calculates the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse, and the tangent ratio calculates the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side.

- Trigonometry can be used to determine the angle of elevation or depression when the height or distance is known.

- For example, if the height of a building and the distance from a person to the building are known, trigonometry can be used to calculate the angle of elevation from the person to the top of the building.

- Trigonometry with elevation and depression has various real-life applications:

- Architects use it to design and construct buildings, determining the height and angles needed for proper structures.

- Engineers use it to calculate angles for inclined planes, ramps, or bridges.

- Astronomers use it to measure the angle of elevation of celestial objects.

- Surveyors use it to measure heights and distances for mapping purposes.

- Suppose a person is standing 50 meters away from a tower and measures the angle of elevation to the top of the tower as 30 degrees. Using trigonometry, the height of the tower can be calculated.

- Let's assume the height of the tower is denoted as 'h.' Using the tangent ratio, tan(30°) = h / 50 Solving for 'h,' h = 50 * tan(30°)

Therefore, the height of the tower is approximately 28.87 meters.- Construction is an essential part of geometry, which involves creating accurate and precise geometric figures using only a compass and a straightedge.

- The basic tools used in construction are a compass (to draw circles) and a straightedge (to draw straight lines).

- To construct a line segment, we need two points or endpoints.

- Steps:

a. Take a compass and adjust it to the length of the required line segment.

b. Place the compass at one endpoint and draw an arc.

c. Without changing the compass width, place the compass at the other endpoint and draw another arc.

d. Use a straightedge to draw a line connecting the intersection points of the two arcs.

- To construct an angle, we need a protractor and a straightedge.

- Steps:

a. Draw a line segment as one side of the angle using a straightedge. b. Place the protractor's center at the vertex of the angle, aligning one side of the angle with the protractor's base. c. Read the protractor measurement and mark the desired angle on the other side of the line segment. d. Use a straightedge to connect the vertex to the marked point to complete the construction.- There are various methods to construct triangles based on the given information.

- Constructing a triangle given three sides (SSS):

a. Use a compass to mark the lengths of the three sides on a line.

b. Join the endpoints of the first and third side.

c. Use a compass to draw arcs from the endpoints of the second side, intersecting the line segment drawn in step

b.

d. Join the point of intersection to form the required triangle.

a. Draw a line segment to represent one side of the triangle.

b. Use a compass to mark the length of the second side, starting from an endpoint of the first side.

c. At the endpoint of the second side, use a protractor to measure and mark the included angle.

d. Join the endpoints of the first and second sides.

e. Extend the line segments on both sides to complete the required triangle.

- Steps:

a. Draw a line segment to represent the included side.

b. Use a protractor to measure and mark the first angle at one endpoint of the line segment.

c. From the other endpoint of the line segment, draw a ray at the angle of the second angle.

d. Draw an arc with a compass, centered at the endpoint of the ray, intersecting the line segment.

e. Join the endpoints of the angles to complete the required triangle.

- Steps:

a. Draw a line segment representing the given side.

b. Construct a perpendicular line or an altitude from one endpoint of the side.

c. Set the width of the compass to the length of the other side.

d. Draw an arc from the endpoint of the perpendicular line, intersecting the line segment.

e. Join the endpoints of the altitude and the arc to complete the required triangle.

- It is not possible to construct a unique triangle with only angle measurements. Multiple triangles can be constructed with the same angles but different side lengths.

Note: These methods are just a few examples of constructing basic geometric figures. There are many more construction techniques for various geometric shapes and properties. Example: Construct a triangle ABC, in which AB = 5 cm, BC = 6 cm, and AC = 7 cm. Solution: To construct a triangle with the given side lengths, we will use the SSS method.Steps:

1. Draw a line segment AB with a length of 5 cm.

2. Using a compass, mark 6 cm on line segment AB, starting from point B.

3. Repeat step 2 to mark 7 cm on line segment AB, starting from point A.

4. Connect the endpoints of line segments of lengths 6 cm and 7 cm.

5. The triangle ABC is constructed.

- A circle is a closed shape with all points equidistant from the center.

- Radius (r): The distance from the center of the circle to any point on its circumference.

- Diameter (d): The longest chord that passes through the center of the circle, equal to two times the radius (d = 2r).

- Circumference (C): The measure of the boundary or the distance around the circle (C = 2?r or C = ?d).

- The area of a circle (A) is the region enclosed by its circumference.

- Formula: A = ?r², where ? (pi) is a constant equal to approximately 3.14.

- A sector is a part of the circle enclosed by two radii and an arc.

- Formula: A = (?/360) × ?r², where ? is the central angle of the sector in degrees.

Example: Find the area of a sector with radius 8 cm and central angle 120°. Solution: A = (120/360) × 3.14 × 8² = 8.37 cm²- A semicircle is half of a circle.

- Formula: A = (1/2) × ?r².

Example: Find the area of a semicircle with radius 10 cm. Solution: A = (1/2) × 3.14 × 10² = 157 cm².- A quarter circle is one-fourth of a circle.

- Formula: A = (1/4) × ?r².

Example: Find the area of a quarter circle with radius 5 cm. Solution: A = (1/4) × 3.14 × 5² = 19.625 cm².- A segment is a region between a chord and the arc connecting its endpoints.

- Formula: A = Area of Sector - Area of Triangle within the Sector. Example: Find the area of a segment with radius 6 cm and central angle 120°.

Solution: Area of Sector = (120/360) × 3.14 × 6² = 37.68 cm² Area of Triangle = (1/2) × 6 × 6 × sin(120°) = 18 cm² Area of Segment = 37.68 - 18 = 19.68 cm².- The perimeter of a sector is the sum of the lengths of its arc and its two radii.

- Formula: P = 2r + (?/360) × 2?r, where r is the radius and ? is the central angle of the sector in degrees. Example: Find the perimeter of a sector with radius 12 cm and central angle 150°.

Solution: P = 2(12) + (150/360) × 2 × 3.14 × 12 = 66.28 cm.- Surface area is the total area covered by the surface of a solid figure.

- Volume is the space occupied by a solid figure.

- The concepts of surface areas and volumes are crucial in real-life applications like construction, packaging, etc.

- A cuboid has six rectangular faces.

- The total surface area (TSA) is the sum of the areas of all six faces.

- TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh)

- Example: Consider a cuboid with length (l) = 5 cm, width (w) = 3 cm, and height (h) = 4 cm. Calculate its surface area.

Solution: TSA = 2(5*3 + 5*4 + 3*4) = 2(15 + 20 + 12) = 2(47) = 94 cm²- A right circular cylinder has two circular bases and a curved surface.

- The curved surface area (CSA) is the area of the rectangle formed by the height (h) and the circumference (C) of the base.

- CSA = 2?rh

- The total surface area (TSA) is the sum of the basal areas (2?r²) and the curved surface area.

- TSA = 2?r(r+h)

- Example: If the radius (r) of a cylinder is 7 cm and height (h) is 10 cm, find its surface area.

Solution: CSA = 2?(7*10) = 140? cm² and TSA = 2?(7(7+10)) = 428? cm² (approx. 1349.4 cm²)- A sphere has a curved surface only.

- The surface area of a sphere is given by the formula:

- TSA = 4?r²

Example: Find the surface area of a sphere with a radius of 6 cm. Solution: TSA = 4?(6*6) = 144? cm² (approx. 452.2 cm²)- The volume (V) of a cuboid is given by the formula:

- V = lwh

- Example: Consider a cuboid with length (l) = 5 cm, width (w) = 3 cm, and height (h) = 4 cm. Find its volume.

Solution: V = 5*3*4 = 60 cm³- The volume (V) of a cylinder is given by the formula:

- V = ?r²h

- Example: If the radius (r) of a cylinder is 7 cm and height (h) is 10 cm, calculate its volume.

Solution: V = ?(7*7)*10 = 490? cm³ (approx. 1539.4 cm³)- The volume (V) of a sphere is given by the formula:

- V = (4/3)?r³

- Example: Find the volume of a sphere with a radius of 6 cm.

Solution: V = (4/3)?(6*6*6) = 288? cm³ (approx. 904.8 cm³)1. Grouped Data: In real-life situations, data is often presented in groups or intervals instead of individual values. Grouped data helps in organizing and analyzing large datasets efficiently. It involves creating intervals and recording the frequency of values falling within each interval.

2. Direct Method of Finding Mean: In direct method, the actual values are not available, but the mid-values of each interval are given. To find the mean, multiply each mid-value by its corresponding frequency, sum them up, and divide by the total frequency.

The mid-values for each interval are 15, 25, 35, 45. The calculation for the mean would be (15*4 + 25*6 + 35*8 + 45*5)/(4+6+8+5).1. Assumed Mean Method: In cases where the individual values in a grouped data are not given, an assumed mean method can be used. The mean is approximated by assuming a value within a specific range and finding the deviations of the assumed mean from the mid-values of the intervals.

The calculation for the mean using the assumed mean method would be (50 + ((4*(-5)) + (6*5) + (8*15) + (5*25))/(4+6+8+5).2. Cumulative Frequency: It refers to the running total frequency of the values up to a specific interval. Cumulative frequency helps in determining the number of elements falling within certain value ranges.

Example: Considering the same grouped data as above, calculating the cumulative frequency would be: