- Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules.

- Matter is found in various forms and states, which we will discuss further in this chapter.

- Diffusion is the process by which particles of matter move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until they are evenly distributed.

- Brownian motion refers to the random and constant motion of particles suspended in a fluid due to collisions with other particles.

Characteristics of Particles of Matter:- Despite appearing solid, particles have small gaps or intermolecular spaces between them.

- The level of spacing depends on the state of matter.

- Attractive forces exist between particles, and the strength of these forces varies between different states of matter.

- These attractions are responsible for keeping particles together in a substance.

States of Matter:- In the solid state, particles are closely packed and do not move freely.

- They have a definite shape and volume.

- The intermolecular forces holding particles are strong.

- In the liquid state, particles are less closely packed than in solids.

- They have a fixed volume but can take the shape of the container they occupy.

- The intermolecular forces are weaker compared to solids.

- In the gaseous state, particles are highly separated and exhibit rapid, random motion.

- They have neither a fixed shape nor volume, as they spread to fill any container.

- The intermolecular forces are very weak in gases.

- Matter can change its state when subjected to various conditions such as temperature and pressure.

- The change of state can be categorized into three processes: melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation, sublimation, and deposition.

Effect of Temperature:- Latent heat is the amount of heat energy absorbed or released during a change in the state of matter.

- Latent heat of fusion refers to the heat required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid.

- Latent heat of vaporization refers to the heat required to change a substance from a liquid to a gas.

Effect of Change in Pressure:- Changes in pressure can also cause substances to change their state.

- For example, when pressure is applied to a gas, it can be converted into a liquid or solid (process called condensation and deposition).

- Similarly, when pressure is reduced, a solid can directly change into a gas (process called sublimation).

- The rate of evaporation is influenced by factors such as temperature, surface area, humidity, and airflow.

- Higher temperatures, larger surface areas, lower humidity, and increased airflow accelerate evaporation.

- Plasma is a state of matter that exists at extremely high temperatures.

- It is a collection of ionized gas particles, where electrons are separated from atoms or molecules.

- It is typically observed in stars and certain high-energy situations.

- Bose-Einstein condensate is a state of matter that occurs at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero.

- It is formed when a group of bosons (a type of subatomic particle) lose their individual identity and behave as a single entity.

- This state was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein.

- Introduce the concept of mixtures and their ubiquity in our daily lives.

- Explain that mixtures are a combination of two or more substances that are physically mixed together but not chemically bonded.

- Briefly mention the importance of understanding mixtures in various fields such as chemistry, biology, and industry.

- Define mixture as a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded.

- Mention that mixtures can be classified into two types: homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

- Homogeneous mixture: Explain that a homogeneous mixture has uniform composition throughout and its components cannot be easily distinguished. Provide examples like a solution of salt in water, air, and brass (an alloy of copper and zinc).

- Heterogeneous mixture: Explain that a heterogeneous mixture has non-uniform composition, and its components can be visually distinguished. Give examples like a mixture of sand and water, a salad, and a mixture of oil and vinegar.

- Define a solution as a homogeneous mixture composed of a solute (substance being dissolved) and a solvent (substance doing the dissolving).

- Properties of solutions: Mention that solutions are transparent, do not scatter light, and cannot be separated by filtration. They have uniform physical and chemical properties throughout.

Define concentration of a solution and saturated/unsaturated solution:- Concentration of a solution: Explain that the concentration of a solution refers to the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution.

- Saturated solution: Describe that a saturated solution is a solution in which no more solute can dissolve at a given temperature. Additional solute will remain undissolved. For example, adding excess sugar to a cup of hot tea would result in undissolved sugar at the bottom.

- Unsaturated solution: Explain that an unsaturated solution is a solution in which more solute can be dissolved. For example, adding sugar to a cup of iced tea typically allows for complete dissolution. Methods of finding the concentration of a solution:

- Qualitative method: Explain that this method is based on the physical properties of the solution, such as its color or smell. For example, determining the concentration of a solution of potassium permanganate by observing its intensity of color.

- Quantitative method: Mention that this method involves precise measurements and calculations. For example, finding the concentration of a solution by measuring the volume of solute dissolved in a given volume of solvent or solution using techniques like titration or spectrophotometry.

- Define suspension as a heterogeneous mixture in which solid particles are dispersed in a liquid or gas but tend to settle at the bottom over time.

- Properties of suspensions: Explain that suspensions are cloudy or opaque, scatter light, and can be separated by filtration or by allowing the particles to settle. Examples include muddy water, sand in water, and orange juice with pulp. Define colloidal solution and its properties:

- Define a colloidal solution (colloid) as a heterogeneous mixture in which one substance is dispersed evenly in another but does not settle out.

- Properties of colloidal solutions: Explain that colloids are intermediate between solutions and suspensions. They appear translucent or milky, scatter light (Tyndall effect), and cannot be separated by filtration but can be separated using special techniques like centrifugation. Examples include milk, fog, and ink. Separation of the components of mixtures:

- Briefly mention the importance of separating the components of mixtures for various reasons like purification, recycling, and obtaining desired substances. Obtaining colored components from blue/black ink with steps: - Discuss the process of chromatography: Explain that chromatography is a technique used to separate the components of a mixture based on their different abilities to migrate across a medium.

1. Take a strip of filter paper or chromatography paper.

2. Draw a line with the ink to be separated.

3. Dip the bottom of the paper into a suitable solvent.

4. As the solvent travels up the paper due to capillary action, different components of the ink will separate and move at different rates.

5. The separated components can be observed as distinct colored bands on the paper.

Separation of cream from milk and application of centrifugation:- Describe centrifugation as a process used to separate particles of different densities by spinning them at high speeds.

- Steps:

1. Pour the milk into a centrifuge tube and close it.

2. Place the tube in a centrifuge machine.

3. Spin the tube at high speed.

4. The denser cream particles move towards the periphery due to centrifugal force, allowing easy separation from the liquid (skim milk).

Separating two immiscible liquids with the example of oil and water and application of a funnel:- Explain that immiscible liquids are unable to dissolve in each other and form separate layers.

1. Take a mixture of oil and water in a funnel.

2. Wait for the liquids to settle and separate into distinct layers.

3. Open the stopcock at the bottom of the funnel.

4. The denser liquid (water) will flow out first, followed by the lighter liquid (oil). The liquids can be collected separately.

Separating a mixture of salt and ammonium chloride:- Describe the method of sublimation: Explain that sublimation is the process in which a solid directly converts into a vapor without passing through a liquid state.

1. Heat the mixture of salt and ammonium chloride in a china dish.

2. Ammonium chloride, being volatile, sublimes and forms a vapor.

3. The vapor can be collected and condensed to obtain ammonium chloride.

4. Salt remains behind in the dish.

- Explain the process of paper chromatography (similar to obtaining colored components from ink) to separate the dyes present in black ink.

Separating a mixture of two miscible liquids:- Define miscible liquids as those that can dissolve in each other to form at least one homogeneous liquid phase.

- Separating mixture of two miscible liquids is challenging through simple physical methods. Distillation, fractional distillation, or other specialized techniques are used for separation. Obtaining different gases from air:

- Briefly mention that air is a mixture of several gases.

- Highlight the process of fractional distillation: Explain that fractional distillation is used to separate the components of a mixture based on their different boiling points.

- For example, liquid air can be fractionally distilled to obtain nitrogen, oxygen, and other components.

Obtaining pure copper sulfate from an impure sample:- Describe the process of crystallization: Explain that crystallization is the technique used to purify a solid by dissolving it in a solvent and allowing it to form well-defined crystals upon cooling or evaporation.

1. Dissolve the impure copper sulfate in water, creating a solution.

2. Heat the solution to evaporate excess water, concentrating the copper sulfate.

3. Allow the solution to cool slowly, facilitating the growth of pure copper sulfate crystals.

4. Separate the crystals from the remaining solution and rinse with cold water to obtain pure copper sulfate. Physical and chemical changes:

- Define physical change as a change in the physical properties of a substance without altering its chemical composition. Examples include changes in state (melting, freezing) and changes in shape or size (cutting, grinding).

- Define chemical change as a change that results in the formation of new substances with different chemical properties. Examples include combustion, rusting, and digestion.

- Mention that pure substances are made up of only one type of substance and have a fixed chemical composition.

- Types of pure substances: Explain that pure substances can be further categorized into elements and compounds.

- Element: Describe an element as a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Examples include oxygen, hydrogen, and iron.

- Compound: Describe a compound as a substance composed of two or more elements chemically bonded in a fixed ratio. Examples include water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sodium chloride (NaCl).

Difference between mixtures and compounds:- Explain that mixtures are physically combined substances without any fixed composition, while compounds are chemically combined substances with a fixed composition.

- Mixtures: Mention that mixtures can be separated into their components using physical methods without any chemical reactions occurring.

- Compounds: Explain that compounds can only be separated into their constituent elements through chemical reactions. Once formed, compounds have different properties than the individual elements they are composed of.

- Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. Everything around us, including ourselves, is made up of atoms.

- They are extraordinarily tiny particles, so small that millions of them can fit on the head of a pin.

- Atoms are composed of subatomic particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.

- Law of Conservation of Mass: This law states that in a chemical reaction, matter cannot be created or destroyed. The total mass of the reactants will always be equal to the total mass of the products.

Example: When hydrogen gas (H?) reacts with oxygen gas (O?) to form water (H?O), the total mass of hydrogen and oxygen in the reactants is equal to the total mass of water in the products.- Law of Constant Proportions: This law states that a chemical compound always consists of the same elements combined in the same proportion by mass, regardless of the size or source of the sample. Example: Water (H?O) always contains hydrogen and oxygen in a fixed mass ratio of 2:16, regardless of whether it is obtained from tap water or a raindrop.

- Proposed by John Dalton, this theory has four main postulates:

1. All matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.

2. Atoms of the same element are identical in size, mass, and properties. Different elements have different types of atoms.

3. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction.

4. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios.

- Atoms are represented by their respective symbols, which are derived from either their names or Latin names.

- For example, the symbol for hydrogen is H, oxygen is O, carbon is C, and so on.

- These symbols are universally agreed upon and used in the periodic table to represent elements.

- Atomic mass is the mass of an atom, which is composed of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, while electrons orbit around the nucleus.

- It is measured in atomic mass units (amu).

- For example, the atomic mass of carbon is approximately 12 amu.

- Molecules are formed when two or more atoms combine chemically.

- They can be made up of atoms of the same element (diatomic or polyatomic molecules) or different elements (compound molecules).

- For example, oxygen gas (O?) is a diatomic molecule, while water (H?O) is a compound molecule.

- Atomicity refers to the number of atoms present in a molecule.

- Some molecules have only one atom (monoatomic), such as noble gases like helium (He).

- Others have two atoms (diatomic), like oxygen gas (O?), and some have more than two atoms (polyatomic), like water (H?O).

- Chemical formulae represent the types and numbers of atoms present in a compound or molecule.

- For example, the chemical formula for water is H?O, indicating that it consists of two hydrogen atoms (H) and one oxygen atom (O).

- Characteristics of chemical formulae include simplicity, consistency, and uniqueness.

- The number of atoms is indicated by writing a subscript after each element.

- The subscript number should be written only if it is greater than 1; otherwise, it is understood as 1.

- The chemical formula should be simplified by dividing all subscripts by their greatest common factor if possible.

- For example, the formula for carbon dioxide is CO?, not COO?.

- Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule.

- Formula unit mass refers to the sum of atomic masses in an ionic compound's chemical formula.

- For example, the molecular mass of water (H?O) is calculated as 2(1 g/mol of hydrogen) + 16 g/mol of oxygen = 18 g/mol.

- Ions are charged particles formed by the loss or gain of electrons from atoms.

- Ionic compounds are composed of positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions).

- The chemical formula of ionic compounds reflects the ratio of ions in a neutral, electrically balanced structure.

- For example, the formula for common table salt (sodium chloride) is NaCl, where Na? is the cation and Cl? is the anion.

- The mole concept is a method to measure the quantity of particles in a substance.

- A mole represents 6.022 × 10²³ particles (Avogadro's number) of that substance.

- Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in grams.

- It is numerically equivalent to the atomic or molecular mass in amu.

- For example, the molar mass of sodium (Na) is 23 g/mol, while the molar mass of water (H?O) is 18 g/mol.

- Number of moles = Mass of substance (in grams) / Molar mass (in grams/mole)

- Number of particles = Number of moles × Avogadro's number

- Mass = Number of moles × Molar mass

- The study of atoms and their structure began with the discovery of subatomic particles like electrons, protons, and neutrons.

- This field of study is known as atomic theory, which helps us understand the fundamental building blocks of matter.

- J.J. Thomson conducted experiments with cathode rays in the late 19th century.

- He observed that these rays were negatively charged particles, which were later identified as electrons.

- Thomson's experiment consisted of passing an electric current through a partially evacuated glass tube called a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).

- The tube had two electrodes: a positively charged anode and a negatively charged cathode.

- Thomson observed that when the electric current was passed through the tube, a glowing beam called cathode rays came from the cathode towards the anode.

- This discovery led to the understanding that atoms are composed of smaller particles called electrons.

- Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles.

- They have a negligible mass compared to protons and neutrons.

- Electrons are distributed around the nucleus of an atom in specific energy levels or shells.

- The discovery of protons came through experiments involving anode rays or canal rays.

- Anode rays were produced in a specially designed discharge tube by passing a high voltage through it.

- When the gas in the tube was ionized, a positively charged particle called the proton was found to be emitted.

- Protons are positively charged subatomic particles.

- They are relatively heavier than electrons.

- Protons are located in the nucleus of an atom.

- James Chadwick discovered neutrons in 1932.

- He conducted experiments bombarding a beryllium target with alpha particles (helium nuclei).

- Chadwick observed the emission of a neutral radiation that could penetrate materials.

- This neutral radiation was identified as neutrons.

- Neutrons have no charge and provide stability to the nucleus.

- Scientists proposed different models to explain the structure and behavior of atoms.

- Two prominent models are Thomson's atomic model and Rutherford's atomic model.

- J.J. Thomson proposed the "plum pudding" model of the atom in 1904.

- According to this model, atoms were thought to be composed of a positively charged sphere with negatively charged electrons embedded in it.

- The electrons were compared to plums in a pudding or raisins in a cake.

- This model implied that electrons were evenly distributed throughout the atom.

- Ernest Rutherford conducted the famous gold foil experiment in 1911.

- He bombarded a thin gold foil with alpha particles and observed their scattering patterns.

- From the experiment, Rutherford concluded that atoms have a tiny, dense, positively charged nucleus at the center.

- He also deduced that most of the atom's volume is empty space where electrons exist.

- Most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil without significant deflection.

- Some alpha particles were deflected at various angles.

- A small fraction of alpha particles bounced back in the direction from which they came.

- The atom contains a dense, positively charged nucleus.

- Most of the atom is empty space through which the alpha particles pass.

- The deflection and bouncing back of alpha particles suggest the presence of a concentrated positive charge (nucleus).

- Atoms have a central, positively charged nucleus.

- The nucleus contains protons and neutrons.

- Electrons revolve around the nucleus in defined energy levels or shells.

- It failed to explain the stability of electrons in their respective orbits.

- It couldn't explain the specific wavelengths of light emitted by atoms.

Assumptions made by Neil Bohr: - Neil Bohr proposed his atomic model in 1913 to overcome the discrepancies in Rutherford's model.- He made two key assumptions:

1. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed, discrete orbits.

2. Electrons can jump from one orbit to another by gaining or losing energy.

- Atomic number is the number of protons present in an atom's nucleus.

- It determines the identity of an element.

- For example, hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 because it has one proton.

- Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.

- It determines the atomic mass of an element.

- For example, carbon-12 has a mass number of 12, consisting of 6 protons and 6 neutrons.

- Electrons are arranged in different energy levels or shells around the nucleus.

- According to Bohr-Bury scheme, the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each shell is given by the formula 2n^2, where n represents the shell's number.

- For example, the first shell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons (2x1^2), the second shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons (2x2^2), and so on.

Valence Shell and Valence Electrons:- The outermost shell of an atom is called the valence shell.

- Valence electrons are the electrons present in the valence shell.

- These electrons determine the chemical properties and reactivity of an element.

- Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.

- They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

- Isotopes find various applications, such as carbon-14 in radiocarbon dating and iodine-131 in medical diagnostics and treatment.

- Isobars are atoms or ions that have the same mass number but different atomic numbers.

- They belong to different elements, but their total number of nucleons (protons + neutrons) is the same.

- The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

- It is the smallest unit of life that can perform all the necessary functions for survival.

- Cells can be found in various shapes and sizes, and they work together to form tissues, organs, and organisms.

- The cell theory states that all living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms, and all cells come from pre-existing cells through cell division.

- There are two types of organisms: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

- Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, are simple, single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

- Eukaryotes, including plants, animals, fungi, and protists, are complex, multicellular organisms that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

1. Shape: Animal cells have irregular shapes, whereas plant cells are typically rectangular or square-shaped.

2. Cell Wall: Animal cells lack cell walls, while plant cells have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose.

3. Vacuoles: Animal cells usually have small, temporary vacuoles, whereas plant cells have a large central vacuole for storage of water, nutrients, and waste.

4. Chloroplasts: Animal cells do not contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but plant cells have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll.

5. Centrioles: Animal cells have centrioles that aid in cell division, while plant cells lack centrioles.

6. Lysosomes: Animal cells typically have many lysosomes for digestion, whereas plant cells have fewer lysosomes.

- Diffusion is the process by which particles or molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

- This movement occurs due to the random motion of particles.

- For example, when you open a bottle of perfume in one corner of a room, the perfume molecules will diffuse to all areas of the room, creating a uniform scent.

- Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

- It occurs when the concentration of solutes (substances dissolved in water) is different on either side of the membrane.

- Water moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration to equalize the concentration.

- For instance, when you place a raisin in a cup of water, water molecules will move into the raisin through osmosis, causing it to swell and become plump.

Hypotonic, Hypertonic, and Isotonic Solutions:- Hypotonic solution: It has a lower solute concentration compared to the cell. Water moves into the cell, causing it to swell or burst.

- Hypertonic solution: It has a higher solute concentration compared to the cell. Water moves out of the cell, causing it to shrink or shrivel.

- Isotonic solution: It has an equal solute concentration compared to the cell. There is no net movement of water, and the cell remains unchanged.

Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane:- The plasma membrane is a thin, flexible barrier surrounding the cell that separates the cell from its external environment.

- It is made up of phospholipids and proteins.

- The plasma membrane is selectively permeable, controlling the entry and exit of substances into and out of the cell.

1. Controls the passage of substances: It regulates the movement of molecules in and out of the cell. For example, nutrients enter the cell, while waste products exit through the membrane.

2. Maintains cell shape and integrity: The plasma membrane provides structural support and prevents the cell from bursting.

Cell Wall:- The cell wall is a rigid structure found in plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria.

- It is located outside the plasma membrane.

- The cell wall is primarily composed of cellulose in plant cells.

- It provides strength, protection, and structural support for the cell.

Function of Cell Wall:- The cell wall maintains the shape of the cell and prevents it from bursting under high pressure.

- It also serves as a barrier against pathogens and provides mechanical support to plants.

- Plasmolysis occurs when a plant cell loses water in a hypertonic solution.

- Due to the loss of water, the protoplast (cell contents) shrinks and pulls away from the cell wall.

- This typically happens when a plant cell is placed in a highly concentrated salt solution.

- The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

- It contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell.

- The nucleus is often called the control center of the cell as it regulates cellular activities.

- The nucleus consists of a nuclear envelope (membrane), nucleoplasm (gel-like substance inside the nucleus), and chromatin (DNA and proteins).

1. Storage and transmission of genetic information: The nucleus contains DNA, which carries the genetic instructions for cell growth, development, and reproduction.

2. Controls cell activities: It regulates gene expression and is involved in protein synthesis.

- The nucleoid is an irregularly shaped region in prokaryotic cells where the genetic material (DNA) is found.

- It is not surrounded by a nuclear envelope like the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.

- The cytoplasm is a gel-like substance present inside the cell.

- It contains various cellular structures and organelles.

- It is involved in cellular metabolism and supports the movement of organelles within the cell.

Function of Cytoplasm:- The cytoplasm provides a medium for chemical reactions to occur within the cell.

- It helps in the transport of substances and maintains the shape and structure of the cell.

- The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes in the cytoplasm.

- It is involved in the synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins and lipids.

1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): It is studded with ribosomes on its surface and is involved in protein synthesis.

2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): It lacks ribosomes and is responsible for lipid synthesis, detoxification, and storage of calcium ions.

Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum:- The ER plays a crucial role in protein and lipid production, quality control, and transport within the cell.

- The Golgi apparatus (also called Golgi body or Golgi complex) is a flattened stack of membranes found in eukaryotic cells.

- It is involved in the modification, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transportation.

Function of Golgi Apparatus:- The Golgi apparatus processes and modifies proteins and lipids produced by the endoplasmic reticulum before packaging them into vesicles for transport to their final destinations within or outside the cell.

- Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles filled with digestive enzymes.

- They break down waste materials, old cell components, and foreign substances within the cell.

Functions of Lysosomes:- Lysosomes aid in cellular digestion, recycling of cell components, and defense against pathogens.

- Mitochondria are responsible for energy production in the form of ATP through cellular respiration.

- They are found in both plant and animal cells but are more numerous in animal cells.

- Mitochondria have an outer membrane and an inner membrane with numerous folds called cristae.

- Inside the inner membrane is the mitochondrial matrix, which contains enzymes involved in energy production.

- Mitochondria generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of cells, through cellular respiration.

- Plastids are organelles found in plant cells that are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and pigmentation.

- Plastids have a double membrane and contain their own DNA.

- The three main types of plastids are chloroplasts (green plastids associated with photosynthesis), chromoplasts (colored plastids involved in pigment synthesis), and amyloplasts (plastids responsible for starch storage).

- Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis, converting sunlight into chemical energy (glucose).

- Chromoplasts produce and store pigments, giving flowers and fruits their vibrant colors.

- Amyloplasts store starch, which serves as an energy reserve in plants.

- Vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs found in plant and animal cells.

- They play various roles, including storage of water, nutrients, and waste materials.

- In plant cells, the central vacuole maintains turgor pressure, stores water, ions, and pigments, and provides structural support.

- In animal cells, vacuoles are smaller and mainly involved in storing water and waste materials.

- Plant tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform specific functions in plants.

- There are two main types of plant tissues: meristematic (undifferentiated) and permanent (differentiated) tissues.

- Meristematic tissues are responsible for the growth and development of plants.

- They consist of actively dividing cells and have the ability to differentiate into various types of tissues.

- These tissues are found in areas of the plant where growth occurs, called meristems.

- Meristems are found in the root tips, shoot tips, and cambium (a lateral meristem).

- Primary meristematic tissues (promeristem) originate from the embryonic cells of the plant.

- Secondary meristematic tissues develop from primary meristems later in the plant's life.

- Apical meristem is located at the growing tips of roots and shoots, responsible for the increase in length of the plant.

Example: The apical meristem at the tip of a stem helps the plant grow taller.- Intercalary meristem is present at the base of leaves or internodes, contributing to the elongation of the stem. Example: The intercalary meristem is responsible for the regrowth of grass after it has been mowed.

- Lateral meristem (cambium) is found in the vascular tissues of the stem and root, responsible for lateral growth (increase in girth).

Example: The cambium layer produces new xylem and phloem to thicken the stem.- Permanent tissues are derived from meristematic tissues and have specialized functions.

- They are grouped into two categories: simple permanent tissues and complex permanent tissues.

- Epidermis is the outermost layer of cells in plants, covering the entire plant body.

Example: The epidermis of a leaf protects the underlying tissues from excessive water loss.- Cork or phellem is a type of protective tissue found in the bark of woody plants.

Example: The cork of a tree trunk acts as a barrier against external damage.- Epidermis protects against water loss and external threats, helps in gas exchange, and secretes certain substances.

- Cork provides protection against mechanical and environmental damage.

- Supporting tissues, such as parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma, provide structural support to the plant.

- Parenchyma cells are loosely packed with thin cell walls and are involved in photosynthesis, storage, and secretion.

- Collenchyma cells have thickened cell walls and provide flexible support to growing parts of the plant.

- Sclerenchyma cells have heavily thickened cell walls and provide rigid support to mature plant parts.

- Xylem is responsible for the transport of water and minerals from roots to the aerial parts of the plant.

- Tracheids and vessels are the conducting elements in xylem.

- Xylem parenchyma stores food and assists in lateral conduction.

- Xylem sclerenchyma provides mechanical strength to the tissue.

- Phloem is involved in the transport of organic substances (e.g. sugars) from leaves to other parts of the plant.

- Sieve tubes and companion cells are responsible for the conduction in phloem.

- Phloem fibers,

parenchyma, and leptom provide support and storage functions in the phloem tissue.- Animal tissues are a group of cells with a similar structure and function that work together to perform specific tasks in an animal's body.

- They are classified into four main types: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue.

- Epithelial tissue covers the surfaces of organs, lines body cavities, and forms glands.

- It consists of tightly packed cells with very little extracellular matrix.

- Epithelial tissue provides protection, secretion, absorption, and sensation.

- Types of epithelium include:

- Squamous epithelium: Composed of flat cells, it forms the lining of blood vessels and alveoli of the lungs.

- Cuboidal epithelium: Composed of cube-shaped cells, it forms the lining of kidney tubules and salivary glands.

- Columnar epithelium: Composed of elongated cells, it lines the stomach, intestines, and respiratory tract.

- Ciliated epithelium: Composed of columnar cells with cilia on their surface, it lines the respiratory tract to move mucus and trapped particles.

Connective Tissue:- Connective tissue connects and supports different tissues and organs in the body.

- It consists of cells, fibers, and an extracellular matrix.

- Fluid or vascular connective tissue includes blood and lymph.

- Blood is a connective tissue composed of plasma, corpuscles (red and white blood cells), and platelets.

- Lymph is a fluid connective tissue that aids in immune function.

- Skeletal tissue is a type of connective tissue responsible for providing support and structure to the body.

- It includes bones and cartilage.

- Bones are hard, rigid structures that protect organs, provide attachment points for muscles, and produce blood cells.

- Cartilage is a flexible tissue found in the nose, ears, and joints, providing cushioning and shock absorption.

Connective Tissue with Yellow and White Fibrous Connective Tissue:- Yellow fibrous connective tissue contains elastic fibers and is found in structures requiring elasticity, such as vocal cords.

- White fibrous connective tissue contains collagen fibers, providing strength and support to tendons and ligaments.

- Areolar tissue is a loose connective tissue that fills the spaces between organs and provides support and cushioning.

- It contains cells and fibers embedded in a gel-like matrix. Adipose Tissue:

- Adipose tissue is a specialized connective tissue that stores fat.

- It acts as an insulator, energy reserve, and protective padding.

- Muscular tissue contracts and relaxes to produce movement.

- Types of muscular tissue include:

- Striated muscles: Also known as skeletal muscles, they are attached to bones and responsible for voluntary movements.

- Cardiac muscles: Found only in the heart, they allow the heart to contract and pump blood.

- Non-striated muscles: Also called smooth muscles, they control involuntary movements of organs, such as the intestines and blood vessels.

- Nervous tissue carries electrical impulses and coordinates the body's activities.

- Components of nervous tissue include neurons (nerve cells), dendrites (receive signals), and axons (transmit signals).

- It forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, enabling communication and coordination within the body.

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- Motion refers to the change in position of an object in relation to its surroundings over a

period of time. It is a fundamental concept in physics.- There are two types of motion: linear motion and rotational motion.

- Linear motion involves movement in a straight line, while rotational motion involves movement around a fixed axis.

- Scalar quantities only have magnitude and are described by a single value or a number. Examples include distance, speed, and time.

- Vector quantities have both magnitude and direction. They require both a value and a specific direction to fully describe them. Examples include displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

- Distance is a scalar quantity that represents the total path length covered by an object. It is always positive and has no regard for direction.

Example question: How far did you walk during your morning jog? Answer: I walked a distance of 3 kilometers.- Displacement is a vector quantity that defines the change in position of an object in a straight line from its initial to final position. It takes into account both magnitude and direction.

Example question: What is your displacement from the starting point after walking 3 kilometers north and then 2 kilometers south? Answer: My displacement is 1 kilometer north.- Distance is the total path covered, while displacement is the change in position from the starting point to the ending point.

- Distance is a scalar quantity, while displacement is a vector quantity.

- Distance is always positive, while displacement can be positive, negative, or zero.

- Uniform motion refers to the movement of an object with a constant speed and in a straight line.

Example: A car traveling at a steady speed of 60 km/h on a straight highway.- Non-uniform motion refers to the movement of an object with varying speeds or changing direction.

Example: A roller coaster moving along its track, constantly changing speed and direction.- Non-uniform motion can be classified as accelerated motion and decelerated motion.

- Accelerated motion occurs when the speed of an object increases with time.

- Decelerated motion occurs when the speed of an object decreases with time.

- Speed is defined as the distance traveled per unit of time. It is a scalar quantity as it only has magnitude.

Example question: A runner covers a distance of 400 meters in 100 seconds. What is his speed? Answer: The runner's speed is 4 m/s.- Velocity is a vector quantity that describes the rate of change of an object's displacement over time. It includes both magnitude and direction.

Example question 1: A car moves 50 kilometers east in 2 hours. What is its velocity? Answer: The car's velocity is 25 km/h towards the east. Example question 2: A cyclist covers 10 kilometers south in 30 minutes. What is her velocity? Answer: The cyclist's velocity is 20 km/h towards the south.- Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

It is a vector quantity and can be positive or negative depending on the direction of change.- Retardation and deceleration are other terms used for negative acceleration.

Example question 1: A car increases its velocity from 20 m/s to 40 m/s in 5 seconds. What is its acceleration? Answer: The car's acceleration is 4 m/s². Example question 2: A car decreases its velocity from 30 m/s to 10 m/s in 4 seconds. What is its acceleration? Answer: The car's acceleration is -5 m/s² (retardation).- Equations of motion are a set of mathematical relationships that describe the motion of an object in terms of its velocity, acceleration, time, and displacement.

- The three main equations of motion are:

1. v = u + at (final velocity equals initial velocity plus acceleration multiplied by time)

2. s = ut + (1/2)at² (displacement equals initial velocity multiplied by time plus half the acceleration multiplied by the square of time)

3. v² = u² + 2as (final velocity squared equals initial velocity squared plus twice the acceleration multiplied by displacement)

- The graph of motion can help visualize and analyze the relationship between various parameters, such as time, distance, velocity, and acceleration.

- Example question 1: A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at 2 m/s² for 4 seconds. Draw the velocity-time graph. Answer: The graph would be a straight line with a slope of 2 m/s².

- Example question 2: An object is thrown vertically upwards. Draw the displacement-time graph for its complete journey. Answer: The graph would be a parabolic curve, reflecting the upward journey followed by the downward journey.

- Uniform circular motion occurs when an object moves in a circular path at a constant speed.

- In this type of motion, the magnitude of velocity remains constant, but the direction continuously changes.

- Example: A satellite in orbit around the Earth, the motion of a carousel, or a cyclist moving in a circular path at a uniform speed.

- Force is a push or pull on an object that can change its state of motion.

- For example, when you push a door to open it, you're applying force to move the door.

- Force can cause an object to speed up, slow down, change direction, or deform.

- For instance, kicking a ball will make it accelerate and change its direction.

- Balanced forces are equal in size and opposite in direction, resulting in no change in an object's motion.

- When you push a book with a force of 5N to the right and your friend pushes it with a force of 5N to the left, the book remains stationary.

- Unbalanced forces are unequal in size or opposite in direction, resulting in a change in an object's motion.

- If two people are playing tug-of-war and one exerts a force of 12N to the right, while the other exerts a force of 8N to the left, the rope will move towards the person applying the greater force.

- Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist who made significant contributions to the understanding of motion.

- He formulated the concept of inertia and found that objects in motion tend to stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force.

- Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion keeps moving with a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

- For example, if you slide a book on a table, it eventually stops due to the force of friction.

- Mass is the amount of matter present in an object, while inertia is an object's resistance to changes in its state of motion.

- Objects with greater mass have more inertia and require more force to change their motion.

- Momentum is the product of an object's mass and velocity, indicating the quantity of motion it possesses.

- For instance, a truck moving at a high speed has more momentum than a bicycle moving at the same speed.

- Momentum is directly proportional to mass. A heavier object will have more momentum than a lighter one if they have the same velocity.

- An object at rest has zero momentum because its velocity is zero.

- The unit of momentum is kilogram-meter per second (kg·m/s).

1. Calculate the momentum of a car weighing 1200 kg moving at 20 m/s.

Solution: Momentum = Mass × Velocity = 1200 kg × 20 m/s = 24,000 kg·m/s.2. If the momentum of an object is 400 kg·m/s and its mass is 50 kg, what is its velocity?

Solution: Velocity = Momentum / Mass = 400 kg·m/s / 50 kg = 8 m/s.3. A tennis ball of mass 0.1 kg is hit with a force of 50 N. Find its acceleration.

Solution: Force = Mass × Acceleration ? Acceleration = Force / Mass = 50 N / 0.1 kg = 500 m/s².4. Two objects of masses 5 kg and 10 kg are moving with velocities 2 m/s and 3 m/s, respectively, in the same direction. Find their total momentum.

Solution: Total Momentum = (Mass1 × Velocity1) + (Mass2 × Velocity2) = (5 kg × 2 m/s) + (10 kg × 3 m/s) = 10 kg·m/s + 30 kg·m/s = 40 kg·m/s.- Newton's Second Law of Motion states that the force acting on an object is equal to the product of its mass and acceleration.

- By setting acceleration (a) to zero in the second law equation, we obtain Newton's First Law, as the force becomes zero when the acceleration is zero.

- Newton's Third Law of Motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

- For example, when you jump off a boat, the backward force of your legs pushing against the boat propels you forward.

- The Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum of a closed system remains constant if no external forces act on it.

- This means that the total momentum before an event must be equal to the total momentum after the event.

1. Gravitational force is the force of attraction that exists between any two objects with mass. On Earth, it is commonly experienced as the force that pulls objects towards the center of the Earth.

2. This force is responsible for keeping objects, like humans, cars, and buildings, grounded on the Earth's surface.

3. The gravitational force on Earth is what gives objects weight, and it also governs the motion of celestial bodies like the Moon and the planets around the Sun.

Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation and Relationship between Newton's 3rd Law and Newton's Law of1. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation states that every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

- F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2, where F is the gravitational force, G is the gravitational constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between their centers.

2. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

- In the context of gravitation, this means that if one object exerts a gravitational force on another, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object. For example, the force of the Earth's gravity on a person is countered by an equal force exerted by the person on the Earth.

3. The importance of the Universal Law of Gravitation lies in its ability to explain and predict the behavior of gravitational forces between any two objects in the universe, from apples falling from trees to the orbits of planets.

Free Fall of an Object and Acceleration due to Gravity:1. Free fall refers to the motion of an object under the sole influence of gravity, without any other forces acting on it.

2. When an object is in free fall, it accelerates at a constant rate known as the acceleration due to gravity, denoted as 'g'.

3. On Earth, the value of 'g' is approximately 9.8 m/s^2, which means that every second, the speed of a falling object increases by 9.8 meters per second.

4. The relationship between 'g' and 'G' (gravitational constant) can be seen as 'g = G * M / R^2', where 'M' is the mass of the Earth and 'R' is the distance from the center of the Earth to the object.

1. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. It is a scalar quantity and is measured in kilograms (kg).

2. Mass determines the inertia of an object, which is its resistance to changes in motion.

3. For example, a 1 kg rock will have the same mass on Earth, the Moon, or anywhere else in the universe.

Weight and Relationship between 1 kg Weight and Newton:1. Weight is the force exerted on an object due to gravity.

2. It is a vector quantity and is measured in newtons (N).

3. The relationship between weight (W), mass (m), and acceleration due to gravity (g) is given by the formula: W = m * g.

4. On Earth, the weight of a 1 kg mass would be approximately 9.8 N (since g = 9.8 m/s^2).

1. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object and remains constant regardless of the location of the object.

2. Weight, on the other hand, is the force exerted on an object due to gravity and varies depending on the gravitational field strength.

3. Mass is an intrinsic property of an object, while weight depends on the force of gravity acting upon it.

1. The value of 'g' is affected by two main factors: altitude and latitude.

- At higher altitudes, 'g' tends to decrease slightly due to the increase in distance from the Earth's center.

- At the poles, 'g' is slightly higher compared to the equator due to the Earth's rotation causing a centripetal force that slightly reduces the gravitational force. Thrust and Pressure:

1. Thrust is the force that propels an object forward and can be experienced during activities like pushing or swimming.

2. Pressure is the amount of force distributed over a given area. It is calculated by dividing the force applied perpendicular to a surface by the area over which it is distributed.

- Pressure = Force / Area.

1. Buoyancy is the upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas).

2. It is a result of the difference in pressure between the top and bottom of the object, causing a net force directed upwards.

- For example, a boat floats in water due to the buoyant force counteracting the weight of the boat.

1. Density is the measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume of a substance.

2. It is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.

- Density = Mass / Volume.

Archimedes' Principle and Application:1. Archimedes' Principle states that when an object is submerged in a fluid, it experiences an upward buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

2. This principle explains why objects seem to weigh less when submerged in water or why ships float.

3. It finds applications in determining the purity of gold, designing floating structures like boats, and calculating the size and weight of submerged objects.

1. Relative density, also known as specific gravity, is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of another substance (usually water).

2. It is a dimensionless quantity, as it compares the density of the substance to that of water, which is assigned a value of 1.

3. For example, if the relative density of a substance is 2, it means that it is twice as dense as water.

- Energy is the ability to do work or cause a change in an object or system.

- It plays a crucial role in various activities and processes in our daily lives.

- Energy exists in various forms, such as mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, and more.

- It can be transformed from one form to another.

- Work is done when a force acts on an object, causing it to move in the direction of the force applied.

- The formula for work is: Work = Force × Distance.

- Conditions for work to be done include the presence of a force, displacement of an object, and the object moving in the direction of the force.

- If there is no displacement of an object, even if a force is applied, no work is done.

- For example, pushing a wall with all your strength does not result in any work since the wall does not move.

- The unit of work is the joule (J).

- One joule of work is done when a force of one newton is exerted on an object causing it to move one meter in the direction of the force.

- Negative work occurs when the force and displacement are in opposite directions.

Example: If a person carries a suitcase upstairs, the force exerted by the person is upward, but the displacement is in the downward direction. Hence, negative work is done.- Positive work occurs when the force and displacement are in the same direction.

Example: When a person pushes a car forward, the applied force and the resulting displacement are both in the forward direction, resulting in positive work.- Zero work occurs when there is no displacement, or the force and displacement are perpendicular to each other.

Example: When a person holds a book statically at one place, no work is done since there is no displacement.- Energy is the ability to do work. It exists in various forms and can be transferred or transformed.

- It can neither be created nor destroyed but only converted from one form to another.

- Mechanical energy includes both potential and kinetic energy.

- Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a moving object and is given by the formula: Kinetic Energy = 1/2 × mass × velocity^2.

Example: A car moving at a velocity of 20 m/s with a mass of 1000 kg has a kinetic energy of 200,000 J.- Potential energy is the energy stored in an object due to its position or state.

Example: A raised weight has potential energy. The higher the weight is lifted, the greater the potential energy it possesses.- Height: An object at a greater height has more potential energy than the same object at a lower height.

- Mass: Increasing the mass of an object increases its potential energy.

- Potential energy can be calculated using the formula: Potential Energy = mass × gravitational acceleration × height.

Example: An object with a mass of 2 kg is on a height of 5 meters. Assuming gravitational acceleration as 9.8 m/s^2, the potential energy is 98 J.- Energy can be transformed from one form to another. For instance, electrical energy can be transformed into light energy in a bulb.

- The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

- When a body falls freely, its potential energy decreases while its kinetic energy increases, maintaining the total energy of the system.

- Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred.

- The unit of power is the watt (W).

- One watt is equal to one joule of work done in one second.

- The power of an electrical gadget is usually given in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW), where 1 kW equals 1000 W.

- For more significant power consumption, larger units such as megawatts (MW) or gigawatts (GW) are used.

- The commercial unit of energy is the kilowatt-hour (kWh).

- 1 kilowatt-hour is equal to the amount of energy consumed when a power of 1 kilowatt is used for one hour.

- Relationship: 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 × 10^6 joules.

Example: If a device consumes 1500 watts for 2 hours, the energy consumed will be 3 kilowatt-hours or 10.8 × 10^6 joules.1. Vibrating Objects: When objects vibrate, they produce sound. For example, a guitar string vibrates to produce musical notes.

2. Musical Instruments: Various instruments, like drums, flutes, and pianos, produce sound when their parts vibrate.

3. Human Voice: When we talk or sing, our vocal cords vibrate, producing sound.

4. Animal Sounds: Different animals, such as birds, dogs, and whales, produce sounds for communication or attracting mates.

5. Moving or Colliding Objects: If objects move or collide with enough force, they can produce sound. For instance, clapping hands or hitting a bell.

6. Machines and Engines: Various machines, like cars, fans, or musical speakers, produce sound due to mechanical vibrations.

Propagation of sound and the need for a medium:1. Wavelength: It is the distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions in a sound wave.

2. Frequency: It is the number of complete vibrations or cycles of a sound wave in one second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz).

3. Time Period: It is the time taken to complete one vibration or cycle. It is inversely related to the frequency and is measured in seconds (s).

4. Amplitude: It refers to the maximum displacement or distance traveled by the particles from their equilibrium position during vibration. It determines the loudness or softness of sound.

Amplitude with pitch, loudness, quality, and timbre:1. Pitch: Higher amplitude corresponds to higher-pitched sounds, while lower amplitude leads to lower-pitched sounds.

2. Loudness: The amplitude of a sound wave determines its loudness. Higher amplitude means louder sounds, while lower amplitude produces softer sounds.

3. Quality: Different instruments or voices produce sounds with unique qualities based on their amplitude characteristics.

4. Timbre: It refers to the quality or tone color of a sound. Amplitude variations produce different timbre variations.

Velocity of sound with an example:• For example, in dry air at 20°C, sound travels at a speed of approximately 343 meters per second.

Speed of sound in various mediums:• The speed of sound varies in different mediums due to differences in the density and elasticity of the medium.

1. Air: 343 m/s (at 20°C)

2. Water: 1,482 m/s (at 20°C)

3. Steel: 5,960 m/s

Sonic boom:• A sonic boom occurs when an object moves faster than the speed of sound. It happens because the object disrupts the normal air pressure and creates a shockwave.

• For example, when a jet breaks the sound barrier, it produces a loud boom due to the sudden disturbance of air molecules.

• Reflection of sound occurs when sound waves strike a surface and bounce back.

• For example, if you shout in front of a rocky mountain, you may hear an echo as the sound waves reflect off the mountain's surface.

• An echo is a reflected sound that reaches our ears distinctly after some time.

• The minimum distance required to hear an echo is approximately 17.2 meters. If the distance between the source and the reflecting surface is less, the reflected sound merges with the original sound.

• Reverberation is the persistence of sound due to multiple reflections in enclosed spaces like big halls.

• To reduce reverberation, the following methods are employed:

1. Acoustic Panels: Installing sound-absorbing panels on walls and ceilings to minimize sound reflection.

2. Carpets and Curtains: Using carpets, curtains, and other soft materials that absorb sound waves and prevent excessive reverberation.

3. Diffusers: Placing diffusing objects or panels to scatter reflected sound waves and reduce their intensity.

• Reflection of sound waves has various applications, such as:

1. Megaphones: Reflecting sound waves amplifies or directs the sound towards a particular direction, making it louder and clearer.

2. Soundboards in Musical Instruments: Strings or air columns vibrating inside musical instruments reflect sound waves to produce better quality sound.

• The range of hearing refers to the range of frequencies that a human can hear, typically between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz.

• Hearing aids are devices used to amplify sound for individuals with hearing impairments, helping them hear sounds within their range of hearing.

• Ultrasound refers to sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper limit of human hearing (20,000 Hz). It has applications in:

1. Medical Imaging: Ultrasound waves are used for diagnosing and monitoring pregnancies, examining internal organs, and imaging blood flow.

2. Industrial Testing: Ultrasound is used for non-destructive testing, such as detecting flaws or cracks in structures, inspecting welds, etc.

• Sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound waves to navigate, detect objects, and measure water depth in oceans or bodies of water.

• It works by emitting sound waves, which bounce off objects in the water and return to the sensor, allowing calculations of distance and object detection.

• The human ear consists of three main parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

1. Outer Ear: It consists of the pinna (visible ear) and the ear canal. The pinna collects sound waves and directs them into the ear canal.

2. Middle Ear: It contains the eardrum and three small bones called ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes). These bones transmit and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.

3. Inner Ear: It consists of the cochlea, which converts sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain through the auditory nerve, allowing us to hear.

- Health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. It is not just the absence of disease or infirmity but also includes leading a balanced and fulfilling life.

- Health is essential for individuals to function optimally and enjoy a good quality of life.

- A disease refers to an abnormal condition affecting the body's normal functioning, often characterized by specific symptoms.

- Diseases can have various causes, including genetic factors, pathogens, lifestyle choices, environmental factors, or a combination.

- Acute diseases are short-term illnesses that typically develop rapidly and have a relatively short duration.

- They often have distinct symptoms and require immediate medical attention.

- Example: Influenza or the common cold are acute respiratory illnesses that usually last for a few days to a couple of weeks.

- Chronic diseases are long-term conditions that persist for an extended period, often for months or even a lifetime.

- They may have less distinct symptoms and can significantly impact a person's quality of life.

- Example: Diabetes, asthma, or hypertension are chronic conditions that require ongoing management and treatment.

- Infectious diseases:

- Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can spread from person to person.

- These diseases often result from direct contact, contaminated surfaces, or through vectors like mosquitoes.

- Example: COVID-19, flu, tuberculosis, malaria, or HIV/AIDS are infectious diseases.

- Non-infectious diseases:

- Non-infectious diseases are not caused by microorganisms and cannot spread from person to person.

- They often result from genetic factors, lifestyle choices, environmental exposures, or underlying medical conditions.

- Example: Diabetes, heart disease, cancer, allergies, or autoimmune disorders are non-infectious diseases.

- Bacteria: Examples include E.coli, Salmonella, Streptococcus.

- Viruses: Examples include Influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus.

- Fungi: Examples include Candida, Aspergillus, Athlete's foot fungus.

- Parasites: Examples include Malaria-causing Plasmodium, Giardia, Tapeworms.

- Bacteria: Agents causing diseases such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis.

- Viruses: Agents causing diseases like common cold, flu, COVID-19, and measles.

- Fungi: Agents causing fungal infections such as ringworm, athlete's foot, or thrush.

- Parasites: Agents causing diseases like malaria, giardiasis, or trichomoniasis.

- Antibiotics are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections.

- They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, helping the body to recover.

- Infectious diseases can spread through various means, including:

- Direct contact with an infected person

- Indirect contact through contaminated surfaces or objects

- Respiratory droplets generated by coughing or sneezing

- Consumption of contaminated food or water

- Transmission by vectors like mosquitoes or ticks.

- AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

- HIV weakens the immune system, making individuals vulnerable to various infections and diseases.

- Causes: HIV is primarily transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles, or from an infected mother to her child during childbirth or breastfeeding.

- Prevention: Use of barrier methods during sexual intercourse, avoiding sharing needles, practicing safe blood transfusion practices, and providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to individuals living with HIV are some prevention measures.

- Organ-specific and tissue-specific manifestations: Some diseases primarily affect specific organs or tissues in the body. For example, cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks primarily affect the heart, while asthma affects the respiratory system.

- Principles of treatment: Treatment depends on the specific disease and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of approaches. For example, heart disease treatment may involve medication, diet modification, exercise, and possibly surgical interventions.

- Principles of prevention: Preventive measures vary depending on the disease but often include vaccination, hygiene practices, lifestyle modifications, and regular health screenings. For example, vaccines can prevent diseases like measles or hepatitis, while practicing good oral hygiene can help prevent dental diseases.

- The number system is a way to represent and organize different types of numbers.

- It includes various kinds of numbers like natural numbers (1, 2, 3...), whole numbers (0, 1, 2...), integers (-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2...), rational numbers (fractions and terminating/ repeating decimals), and irrational numbers (non-terminating/non-repeating decimals).

- Example: 5 is a natural number, 0 is a whole number, -2 is an integer, 1/2 is a rational number, and ?2 is an irrational number.

- Real numbers include rational and irrational numbers.

- Rational numbers can be expressed as fractions or decimals that either terminate (end) or repeat.

- Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as fractions or decimals that end or repeat.

- Example: 2/3 is a rational number, 0.5 is a rational number, and ?3 is an irrational number.

- Equivalent rational numbers have the same value but may have different representations.

- They can be obtained by simplifying fractions or multiplying/dividing the numerator and denominator by the same non-zero integer.

- Example: 2/3 and 4/6 are equivalent rational numbers.

- To find a rational number between two given rational numbers, take their average.

- Example: Find a rational number between 1/4 and 1/2.

Solution: Average of 1/4 and 1/2 = (1/4 + 1/2) / 2 = 3/8- To find 'n' rational numbers between two given rational numbers, divide the interval equally.

- Example: Find two rational numbers between 1/3 and 1/2. Solution: Interval = (1/2 - 1/3) / 3 = 1/6 So, two rational numbers are 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2 and 1/3 + 2/6 = 5/6.

- Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as fractions or decimals that end or repeat, so they have non-repeating/non-terminating decimal expansions.

- To locate an irrational number on a number line, we approximate its value.

- Example: Locate ?2 on a number line. It lies between 1 and 2.

- Rational numbers have either terminating (end) or repeating decimals.

- Irrational numbers have non-terminating/non-repeating decimals.

- Example: Decimal expansion of 3/4 = 0.75 (terminating) and decimal expansion of 1/3 = 0.333... (repeating).

- Recurring decimals can be represented by putting a bar over the repeating part.

- Example: 1/6 = 0.1666... can be represented as 0.16 with a bar over '6'.

- The square root of a number (?x) represents a value whose square equals 'x'.

- It can be represented geometrically as the length of the side of a square with area 'x'.

- Example: ?4 = 2 represents the side length of a square with area 4.

- To find irrational numbers between two given rational numbers, take their average and then find the square root.

- Example: Find an irrational number between 3 and 4.

Solution: Average of 3 and 4 = (3 + 4) / 2 = 3.5 ?3.5 is an irrational number between 3 and 4.- Laws of rationalisation include:

a) Rationalising the denominator for a single term: Multiply the term by its conjugate. b) Rationalising the denominator for two terms: Multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the entire expression.- Example: Rationalise the denominator of (3?2) / (?5). Solution: (3?2) / (?5) * (?5) / (?5) = 3?10 / 5

- A polynomial is an algebraic expression consisting of variables, coefficients, and mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation.

- Examples: 3x^2 + 2x - 5, 4x^3 - 7x^2 + x + 9, 2a^2b + 3ab^2 - 5b^3.

- Monomial: A polynomial with one term. Example: 5x, -2y^2.

- Binomial: A polynomial with two terms. Example: 3x^2 - 5x, 2y + 7.

- Trinomial: A polynomial with three terms. Example: 4x^3 - 2x^2 + x, 3y^2 + 5y - 2.

- Multinomial: A polynomial with more than three terms. Example: 2x^4 - 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 2x + 1.

- The degree of a polynomial is the highest power of the variable in the polynomial.

- Example: Degree of 3x^2 + 2x - 5 is 2, degree of 4x^3 - 7x^2 + x + 9 is 3.

- We can substitute specific values for the variables in a polynomial to evaluate it.

- Example: For the polynomial 3x^2 + 2x - 5, if we substitute x = 2, the value of the polynomial is 3(2)^2 + 2(2) - 5 = 11.

- Zeroes of a polynomial are the values of the variable that make the polynomial equal to zero.

- Example: For the polynomial x^2 - 4x + 3, the zeroes are x = 1 and x = 3.

- This identity shows the expansion of the square of the sum of three variables.

- Example: If we substitute x = 2, y = 3, and z = 1, the identity becomes (2 + 3 + 1)^2 = 2^2 + 3^2 + 1^2 + 2(2)(3) + 2(3)(1) + 2(1)(2).

- The remainder theorem states that if a polynomial f(x) is divided by x

- a, the remainder is equal to f(a).

- Example: If we divide the polynomial 2x^3 + 5x^2 - 3x + 1 by x - 2, the remainder is equal to f(2), where f(x) = 2x^3 + 5x^2 - 3x + 1.

- The factor theorem states that if a polynomial f(a) equals zero, then (x - a) is a factor of the polynomial.

- Example: If f(x) = x^2 - 4x + 3, and f(1) = 0, then (x - 1) is a factor of the polynomial.

- This identity shows the factorization of a cubic polynomial.

- Example: For x = 2, y = 3, and z = 1, the identity becomes 2^3 + 3^3 + 1^3 - 3(2)(3)(1) = (2 + 3 + 1)(2^2 + 3^2 + 1^2 - 2(3) - 3(1) - 1(2)).

- The Cartesian plane is a two-dimensional plane formed by two perpendicular lines intersecting at a point called the origin.

- It is named after the mathematician René Descartes, who introduced the concept.

- The horizontal line is called the x-axis, and the vertical line is called the y-axis. They divide the plane into four equal parts called quadrants.

- The Cartesian system is used to locate points in the Cartesian plane using coordinates.

- Each point in the plane has a unique pair of coordinates (x, y), where x represents the distance along the x-axis and y represents the distance along the y-axis.

- Coordinate geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of geometric figures using algebraic techniques.

- It combines algebra and geometry by representing geometric figures using coordinates.

- In the Cartesian plane, the signs of the coordinates (x, y) determine the quadrant in which a point lies:

- If x and y are both positive, the point lies in the first quadrant.

- If x is negative and y is positive, the point lies in the second quadrant.

- If x and y are both negative, the point lies in the third quadrant.

- If x is positive and y is negative, the point lies in the fourth quadrant.

- For example, the point (3, 4) lies in the first quadrant, while the point (-2, 5) lies in the second quadrant.

- To determine the location of a point in the plane when its coordinates are given, we follow these steps:

- Read the x-coordinate and move that many units to the right or left along the x-axis.

- Read the y-coordinate and move that many units up or down along the y-axis.

- The intersection of these two movements will be the location of the point.

- For example, the point (2, -3) is located by moving 2 units to the right from the origin and then moving 3 units downward.

- Plotting a point involves marking its location on the Cartesian plane using its coordinates.

- To plot a point (x, y), you move x units along the x-axis and y units along the y-axis to locate the point accurately.

- For example, to plot the point (4, 2), move 4 units to the right and 2 units upward from the origin to mark the location of the point.

1. A linear equation in two variables consists of two variables (usually represented by x and y) that are related through linear operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division.

2. The general form of a linear equation in two variables is ax + by = c, where a, b, and c are constants.

3. For example, the equation 2x + 3y = 8 is a linear equation in two variables because it contains both x and y terms and follows the linear form.

1. The solution of a linear equation in two variables represents the values of x and y that satisfy the equation simultaneously.

2. It is usually denoted by ordered pairs (x, y) that make the equation true when substituted into it.

3. For example, let's solve the linear equation 2x + 3y = 8: - If we substitute x = 2 and y = 1, the equation becomes 2(2) + 3(1) = 8, which is correct. So, (2, 1) is a solution to the equation.

1. The graphical representation of a linear equation in two variables is a straight line on the Cartesian plane.

2. The x-axis represents the values of x, and the y-axis represents the values of y.

3. To represent a linear equation graphically, we first find two or more ordered pairs that satisfy the equation.

4. We plot these ordered pairs on the Cartesian plane and join them to form a straight line.

5. For example, let's represent the linear equation 2x - y = 4 graphically:

- We can find three ordered pairs: (0, -4), (2, 0), and (4, 4). - Plotting these points and joining them gives a straight line, which is the graphical representation of the equation.1. The graphical solution of a system of linear equations involves finding the point of intersection of the graphs of the equations.

2. The point of intersection represents the values of x and y that simultaneously satisfy both equations.

3. For example, consider the system of equations: 2x + 3y = 8 and x - y = 2.

- By representing both equations graphically, we find their point of intersection to be (2, 0). Hence, (2, 0) is the solution to this system of equations.1. To represent the equation 2y + 5 = 0 on the Cartesian plane, rewrite it in the form y = mx + c, where m and c are constants.

2. In this case, we can rewrite the equation as y = (-5/2)x.

3. This equation represents a straight line passing through the point (0, 0) and having a slope of -5/2.

4. Plotting this line on the Cartesian plane gives the graphical representation of the equation.

1. Euclidean Geometry: It is a branch of mathematics that focuses on the properties and relationships of points, lines, angles, shapes, and solids in a plane or space. Example: When we measure the length of a line segment or find the area of a rectangle, we are using Euclidean Geometry.

2. Point: A point is a basic building block of geometry. It has no size, occupies no space, and is represented by a dot. Points are named using capital letters.

Example: A, B, C are points on a plane.3. Line: A line is a straight path that extends infinitely in both directions. It is made up of infinitely many points. A line is denoted by a straight arrowhead at each end or by naming two points on the line.

Example: Line AB or line CD represents a straight path passing through points A, B, and C, D respectively.4. Line Segment: A line segment is a part of a line that has two endpoints. It can be measured with a ruler as it has a finite length.

Example: AB or CD represents a line segment with endpoints A, B and C, D respectively.5. Ray: A ray is a part of a line that has one endpoint and extends indefinitely in the other direction. Example: Ray AB represents a line that starts at point A and extends indefinitely in the direction of B.

1. Axiom of Identity: Two things that are equal to the same thing are equal to each other. Example: If a = b and b = c, then a = c.

2. Axiom of Reflexivity: Everything is equal to itself. Example: For any given segment AB, AB = AB.

3. Axiom of Symmetry: If two things are equal, then they can be replaced by each other.

Example: If a = b, then b = a.4. Axiom of Transitivity: If a=b and b=c, then a=c. Example: If AB=CD and CD=EF, then AB=EF.

Euclid's Postulates:1. Postulate 1: A straight line segment can be drawn between any two points.

Example: We can draw a straight line segment between points A and B.2. Postulate 2: A straight line can be extended infinitely in both directions.

Example: A line can be extended infinitely in both directions to form a Ray.3. Postulate 3: A circle can be drawn with any center and any radius. Example: Any point in a plane can serve as the center of a circle with a given radius.

4. Postulate 4: All right angles are equal to each other. Example: If two lines intersect and form right angles, then the angles are equal.

5. Postulate 5: If a line segment intersects two straight lines forming interior angles on the same side that sum to less than 180 degrees, then the two lines will eventually intersect on that same side.

Example: If a transversal crosses two parallel lines, the interior angles on the same side will sum to 180 degrees.- Corresponding angles are pairs of angles that are in the same relative position when a transversal intersects two parallel lines.

- These angles are located on the same side of the transversal and in corresponding positions (on the same corners) of the intersection.

- They have equal measures and are denoted as corresponding angle pairs.

- Angle 1 and angle 5 are corresponding angles since they are in the same relative position on the intersection of the two lines. Similarly, angle 2 and angle 6, as well as angle 3 and angle 7, are corresponding angle pairs.

Corresponding Angles Axiom:- The corresponding angles axiom states that when two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, the corresponding angles formed are congruent or equal.

Example:- Angle 1 is equal to angle 5.

- Angle 2 is equal to angle 6.

- Angle 3 is equal to angle 7.

- You can see that the corresponding angles have the same measure. Converse of Corresponding Angles Axiom:

- The converse of the corresponding angles axiom states that if two lines are intersected by a transversal, and the corresponding angles are equal, then the lines must be parallel. Example: If angles 1 and 5, angles 2 and 6, and angles 3 and 7 are all equal in measure, then we can conclude that lines a and b are parallel. This is because the converse of the corresponding angles axiom states that equal corresponding angles imply parallel lines.

- Alternate angles are pairs of angles that are on opposite sides of the transversal and between the two lines when a transversal intersects two parallel lines.

- They have equal measures and are denoted as alternate angle pairs. Example:

Referring to the same diagram, angles 3 and 6, as well as angles 4 and 5, are alternate angle pairs since they are located on opposite sides of the transversal and between the two lines. Alternate Angles Axiom:- The alternate angles axiom states that when two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, the alternate angles formed are congruent or equal.

Example:- Angle 3 is equal to angle 6.

- Angle 4 is equal to angle 5.

- The alternate angles have the same measure.

- The converse of the alternate angles axiom states that if two lines are intersected by a transversal, and the alternate angles are equal, then the lines must be parallel. Example: If angles 3 and 6, as well as angles 4 and 5, are all equal in measure, then we can conclude that lines a and b are parallel. This is because the converse of the alternate angles axiom states that equal alternate angles imply parallel lines.

- The property states that when a transversal intersects two parallel lines, the sum of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal is equal to 180 degrees. Example: In the same diagram, if we consider all the angles on one side of line t, the sum of the interior angles will always be equal to 180 degrees.

- Angle 2 + angle 3 = 180 degrees.

- Angle 4 + angle 5 = 180 degrees.

- The converse of the property states that if a transversal intersects two lines such that the sum of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal is equal to 180 degrees, then the lines must be parallel. Example: If angle 2 + angle 3 is equal to 180 degrees, and angle 4 + angle 5 is equal to 180 degrees, then we can conclude that lines a and b are parallel. This is because the converse of the property of interior angles on the same side of a transversal states that angles adding up to 180 degrees imply parallel lines. Angle Sum Property of Triangles:

- The angle sum property of triangles states that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is always equal to 180 degrees. Example: In any given triangle, if we add up all the interior angles, the total will always be equal to 180 degrees.

- Angle A + angle B + angle C = 180 degrees.

Relation between the Vertex Angle and the Angles Made by the Bisectors of the Remaining Angles:- In a triangle, if a line or ray bisects an angle, it divides it into two equal angles.

- The angles created by the bisectors of the remaining two angles are also equal. Example: Consider a triangle with angles A, B, and C. Let the line bisect angles A and B.

- The bisector creates two equal angles: angle A' and angle B'.

- Additionally, angle A' is equal to angle B'.

1. All three angles in a triangle always add up to 180 degrees.

- Example: In a triangle with angles measuring 40°, 60°, and 80°, the sum of these angles is 180°.2. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the length of the third side. - Example: If a triangle has side lengths of 4 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm, the sum of any two sides is greater than the length of the remaining side (4+5 > 10).

3. The longest side of a triangle is opposite the largest angle, and the shortest side is opposite the smallest angle.

- Example: In a triangle with angles measuring 40°, 60°, and 80°, the side opposite the 80° angle will be the longest side.4. The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the length of the third side.

- Example: If a triangle has side lengths of 4 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm, the sum of any two sides is greater than the length of the remaining side (4+5 > 10).1. If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC has AB = 5 cm, BC = 6 cm, and ?ABC = 70°, and triangle DEF has DE = 5 cm, EF = 6 cm, and ?DEF = 70°, then triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF.1. CPCT rule states that if two triangles are congruent, then their corresponding parts (sides and angles) are also congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF, then angle A is congruent to angle D, side AB is congruent to side DE, etc.1. If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC has ?A = 50°, ?B = 70°, and AB = 8 cm, and triangle DEF has ?D = 50°, ?E = 70°, and DE = 8 cm, then triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF.1. If two angles and a non-included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the corresponding non-included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC has ?A = 50°, ?B = 70°, and BC = 10 cm, and triangle DEF has ?D = 50°, ?E = 70°, and EF = 10 cm, then triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF.1. If the three sides of one triangle are congruent to the three sides of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC has AB = 6 cm, BC = 8 cm, and AC = 10 cm, and triangle DEF has DE = 6 cm, EF = 8 cm, and DF = 10 cm, then triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF.1. If the hypotenuse and one side of one right-angled triangle are congruent to the hypotenuse and one side of another right-angled triangle, then the triangles are congruent.

- Example: If triangle ABC is a right-angled triangle with AB = 5 cm, BC = 12 cm, and AC = 13 cm, and triangle DEF is a right-angled triangle with DE = 5 cm, EF = 12 cm, and DF = 13 cm, then triangle ABC is congruent to triangle DEF.1. A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides.

2. The sum of the interior angles of any quadrilateral is 360 degrees.

3. Examples of quadrilaterals include squares, rectangles, parallelograms, rhombuses, and trapezoids.

1. Square: A square is a quadrilateral with all four sides equal in length and all four angles equal to 90

degrees. Example:2. Rectangle: A rectangle is a quadrilateral with all four angles equal to 90 degrees, but opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. Example:

3. Parallelogram: A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel and equal in length. Example:

4. Rhombus: A rhombus is a quadrilateral with all four sides equal in length, but opposite sides are parallel, and opposite angles are equal. Example:

5. Trapezoid: A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with at least one pair of opposite sides parallel. Example:

1. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal in length.

2. Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.

3. Consecutive angles in a parallelogram are supplementary (they add up to 180 degrees).

4. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

1. The sum of all interior angles of a quadrilateral is always equal to 360 degrees.

2. For example, in a quadrilateral with angles of 80, 90, 100, and 90 degrees, the sum of these angles is 360 degrees.

Mid-point theorem for quadrilateral:1. If a line segment joins the midpoints of two sides of a quadrilateral, then it is parallel to the third side and half of its length.

2. For example, if AB and CD are two sides of a quadrilateral, and E and F are the midpoints of AB and CD respectively, then EF || AB and EF = (1/2)AB.

1. The opposite angles of a quadrilateral add up to 180 degrees. For example, in a quadrilateral with angles of 60, 120, 40, and 140 degrees, the sum of opposite angles (60 + 140 = 200; 120 + 40 = 160) is equal to 180 degrees.

2. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then it is a parallelogram. For example, in a quadrilateral with diagonals AC and BD intersecting at point O, if AO = OC and BO = OD, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

3. In a parallelogram, the opposite sides are equal and parallel. For example, in a parallelogram with sides AB and CD, AB || CD and AB = CD.

1. The area is the measurement of the surface covered by a plane figure.

2. Commonly used units for area are square centimeters (cm²), square meters (m²), and square kilometers (km²).

3. The formula to calculate the area of a rectangle is: Area = length × width.

Example: If a rectangle has a length of 5 cm and width of 3 cm, the area would be 5 cm × 3 cm = 15 cm².4. The area of a square can be found using the formula: Area = side length × side length.

Example: If a square has a side length of 4 cm, the area would be 4 cm × 4 cm = 16 cm².5. The formula to calculate the area of a triangle is: Area = (base × height) ÷ 2.

Example: For a triangle with a base of 8 cm and height of 6 cm, the area would be (8 cm × 6 cm) ÷ 2 = 24 cm².6. The formula to find the area of a circle is: Area = ? × radius², where ? is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 3.14.

Example: If the radius of a circle is 5 cm, the area would be 3.14 × (5 cm)² = 78.5 cm².1. A polygon is a closed figure made up of line segments.

2. Regular polygons have all sides and angles equal, while irregular polygons have sides and angles of different lengths and measures.

Example: A square is a regular polygon as all sides are equal and all angles are right angles. A rectangle is also a polygon but an irregular one.3. The perimeter of a figure is the total length of its boundary.

Example: For a rectangle with length 6 cm and width 4 cm, the perimeter would be 6 cm + 4 cm + 6 cm + 4 cm = 20 cm.4. Congruent figures have the same size and shape. Example: Two triangles with the same side lengths and angle measures are congruent.

5. Symmetry is when a figure can be divided into two equal parts that are mirror images of each other.

Example: A square has symmetry, as it can be divided into two equal halves by a line of reflection.1. The Pythagorean Theorem states that in any right-angled triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Example: In a right-angled triangle with side lengths of 3 cm and 4 cm, the hypotenuse would be ?(3 cm)² + (4 cm)² = 5 cm.2. The Exterior Angle Theorem states that the measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two non-adjacent interior angles.

Example: In a triangle with interior angles measuring 40º and 60º, the exterior angle would be 180º - 40º - 60º = 80º.1. Circle: A circle is a closed curve in which all points on the curve are equidistant from a fixed point called the center.

Example: The wheels of a bicycle are circular in shape.2. Center: The center is the point inside the circle that is equidistant from all points on the circumference. Example: The center of a dartboard is the point where all the concentric circles meet.

3. Radius: The radius is the line segment connecting the center of the circle to any point on the circumference. Example: If the radius of a circle is 5 cm, then every point on its circumference is exactly 5 cm away from the center.

4. Diameter: The diameter is the line segment that passes through the center and has both endpoints on the circumference.

Example: The width of a circle is equal to twice its radius, so the diameter is twice the length of the radius.5. Chord: A chord is a line segment that connects two points on the circumference of a circle but does not pass through the center.

Example: The string of a guitar, when plucked, creates a sound corresponding to the length of the chord it touches.1. Circumference: The circumference of a circle is the distance around its outer edge.

Example: The formula to calculate the circumference of a circle is C = 2?r, where r is the radius.2. Area: The area of a circle is the space enclosed by its circumference.

Example: The formula to calculate the area of a circle is A = ?r², where r is the radius.3. Pi (?): Pi is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 3.14, which is used in formulas to calculate properties of circles.

Example: The ratio of the circumference of any circle to its diameter is always equal to ?.1. Theorem: The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the center of the circle.

Example: In the figure below, AB is a chord of a circle. The dotted line CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB, and it passes through the center O of the circle.2. Theorem: The angles subtended by an arc at the center of a circle are twice the angles subtended by it at any point on the circumference.

Example: In the figure below, angle ? is twice the angle ?.3. Theorem: The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a circle) add up to 180 degrees.

Example: In the figure below, angles A + C and B + D add up to 180 degrees.1. Constructions in mathematics involve creating accurate shapes and figures using only a straight edge (ruler) and a compass.

2. It is important to maintain precision and accuracy while performing constructions to obtain correct results.

1. To construct an angle, we need a compass and a ruler.

2. Start by drawing a ray (a line with one endpoint) using the ruler.

3. Place the compass at the endpoint of the ray and draw an arc that intersects the ray at some point.

4. Without changing the compass width, place the compass at the point where the arc intersects the ray and draw another arc.

5. Using the ruler, draw a line connecting the endpoint of the ray with the intersection point of the second arc. This line forms the desired angle.

1. To bisect an angle, we need a compass and a ruler.

2. Start by drawing the angle using the ruler.

3. Place the compass on the vertex (corner point) of the angle and draw an arc that intersects both sides of the angle.

4. Without changing the compass width, place the compass on each intersection point and draw arcs that intersect each other.

5. Draw a line connecting the vertex of the angle with the intersection point of the second pair of arcs. This line bisects the angle into two equal parts.

1. A perpendicular bisector is a line that divides a given line segment into two equal halves and is perpendicular (forming a right angle) to it.

2. To construct a perpendicular bisector, draw the given line segment using a ruler.

3. Place the compass at one endpoint of the line segment and draw arcs that intersect both sides of the segment.

4. Repeat the process from the other endpoint of the segment.

5. Draw a line connecting the intersection points of the arcs. This line is the perpendicular bisector.

Construction of a Triangle Given Base, Difference of Other Sides, and one1. Start by drawing the given base line segment using a ruler.

2. From one endpoint of the base, draw an arc with a radius equal to the difference of the other two sides.

3. From the adjacent vertex, draw another arc with the same radius cutting the first arc.

4. Connect the two points of intersection between the arcs and the base line segment.

5. This forms the desired triangle.

1. Begin by drawing the given base line segment using a ruler.

2. Measure and mark the desired base angles on both ends of the base line segment.

3. From each marked point, draw an arc with a radius equal to the given perimeter.

4. The arcs should intersect at two points.

5. Connect these two points with the endpoints of the base line segment, forming the required triangle.

Example: Let's say we want to construct a triangle given a base of length 6 cm, a difference of the other two sides as 4 cm, and one base angle as 60 degrees.1. Draw a line segment of length 6 cm as the base.

2. From one endpoint, draw an arc of radius 4 cm.

3. From the adjacent vertex, draw another arc of the same radius cutting the first arc.

4. Connect the two points of intersection with the base line segment.

5. This gives us the required triangle with the given measurements.

1. Heron's formula is used to calculate the area of a triangle when the lengths of all three sides are known.

2. It is named after Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician who discovered it.

3. The formula is expressed as: Area = ?(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)), where 's' represents the semi-perimeter of the triangle, and 'a', 'b', and 'c' represent the lengths of the three sides.

Example: Consider a triangle with sides measuring 5 cm, 8 cm, and 11 cm. To find its area using Heron's formula, we first calculate the semi-perimeter, which is half the sum of the three sides. In this case, s = (5 + 8 + 11)/2 = 12. Then, plugging the values into the formula, we get Area = ?(12(12-5)(12-8)(12-11)) = ?(12*7*4*1) = ?(336) ? 18.33 cm². Hence, the area of the triangle is approximately 18.33 square centimeters.1. The area of any triangle can be determined by various methods, but Heron's formula provides a straightforward approach.

2. The area of a triangle is a measure of the space enclosed within its three sides.

3. It is given by the formula: Area = 0.5 * base * height.

4. The base is any one of the sides of the triangle, and the height is the perpendicular distance between the base and the opposite vertex.

Example: Consider a triangle with a base of 6 cm and a height of 4 cm. Using the formula, we can find the area as follows: Area = 0.5 * 6 cm * 4 cm = 12 cm². Therefore, the triangle's area is 12 square centimeters.1. Heron's formula provides a way to calculate the area of a triangle directly from its side lengths, without requiring the height or base.

2. The formula relies on the concept of the semi-perimeter, denoted by 's,' which is half the sum of the triangle's sides.

3. Heron's formula is expressed as: Area = ?(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)), where 'a', 'b', and 'c' represent the lengths of the triangle's three sides.

Example: Let's take a triangle with sides measuring 7 cm, 10 cm, and 12 cm. To calculate its area using Heron's formula, we first find the semi-perimeter: s = (7 + 10 + 12)/2 = 29/2 = 14.5. Then, substituting the values into the formula, we get Area = ?(14.5(14.5-7)(14.5-10)(14.5-12)) = ?(14.5*7.5*4.5*2.5) = ?(2041.875) ? 45.20 cm². Thus, the area of the triangle is approximately 45.20 square centimeters.1. An equilateral triangle is a special type of triangle where all three sides are equal in length.

2. To find the area of an equilateral triangle, we use a modified version of Heron's formula.

3. The formula is expressed as: Area = (?3 / 4) * (side)², where 'side' represents the length of any one side of the equilateral triangle.

Example: Consider an equilateral triangle with each side measuring 6 cm. Using the formula, we can calculate its area as follows: Area = (?3 / 4) * (6 cm)² = (?3 / 4) * 36 cm² = (1.732 / 4) * 36 cm² = 1.732 * 9 cm² = 15.588 cm². Therefore, the area of the equilateral triangle is approximately 15.588 square centimeters.- Basic revision refers to a review of fundamental concepts and formulas in mathematics.

- It helps reinforce knowledge and prepare for more advanced topics.

- Topics covered usually include geometry, algebra, arithmetic, and statistics.

- A cuboid is a three-dimensional solid with six rectangular faces.

- Its formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = length × width × height.

- For example, if a cuboid has a length of 6 cm, width of 4 cm, and height of 5 cm, the volume is V = 6 cm × 4 cm × 5 cm = 120 cubic cm.

- A cube is a special type of cuboid with equal length, width, and height.

- Its formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = side × side × side, or V = side^3.

- For instance, if a cube has a side length of 3 cm, the volume would be V = 3 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm = 27 cubic cm.

- A right circular cylinder is a solid with two circular bases and a curved surface connecting them.

- The formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = ? × radius^2 × height.

- For example, if a cylinder has a radius of 2 cm and a height of 8 cm, the volume would be V = ? × 2 cm × 2 cm × 8 cm = 32? cubic cm.

- A right circular cone is a solid with a circular base and a pointed apex.

- Its formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = (1/3) × ? × radius^2 × height.

- For instance, if a cone has a radius of 5 cm and a height of 12 cm, the volume would be V = (1/3) × ? × 5 cm × 5 cm × 12 cm = 100? cubic cm.

- A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical three-dimensional object with all points equidistant from the center.

- Its formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = (4/3) × ? × radius^3.

- For example, if a sphere has a radius of 6 cm, the volume would be V = (4/3) × ? × 6 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm = 288? cubic cm.

- A hemisphere is half of a sphere, formed by cutting it through its center.

- Its formula for calculating the volume (V) is V = (2/3) × ? × radius^3.

- For instance, if a hemisphere has a radius of 9 cm, the volume would be V = (2/3) × ? × 9 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm = 486? cubic cm.

1. Bar graphs are used to represent categorical data using rectangular bars.

2. Each bar represents a specific category, and the length of the bar corresponds to the frequency or values associated with that category.

3. For example, consider a bar graph showing the number of students in different grades. The x-axis represents the different grades (e.g., Grade 9, Grade 10), and the y-axis represents the number of students. Each bar will represent a grade, and its height will represent the number of students in that grade.

1. Pictographs use visual symbols or pictures to represent data, while bar graphs use rectangular bars.

2. Pictographs are useful when representing data with small values or when making data visually appealing.

3. For example, consider a comparison of the number of apples sold by two fruit vendors over a week. A pictograph may use images of apples to represent the data, with each image representing a specific number of apples. On the other hand, a bar graph would use bars to represent the number of apples sold by each vendor.

1. A grouped frequency distribution table is used when dealing with a large set of data values or continuous data.

2. It groups the data into intervals or classes and provides the frequency of values falling within each interval.

3. For example, suppose you have a data set consisting of the times taken by students to complete a test.

Instead of listing all individual times, you can group the data into intervals like 0-10 minutes, 10-20 minutes, etc., and record the number of students falling in each interval.1. Histograms are graphical representations of data distribution using bars for each class interval.

2. Class intervals are represented on the x-axis and the frequencies or values associated with those intervals are represented on the y-axis.

3. For example, imagine you have data on the heights of plants in a garden, and you have grouped them into height intervals like 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, etc. The histogram would have bars representing each interval's height along the x-axis, with the height of the bar representing the frequency or number of plants falling within that interval.

1. Histograms help us understand data distributions and patterns.

2. Higher bars indicate higher frequencies or values in that interval, while shorter bars indicate lower frequencies or values.

3. For example, if we observe a histogram of test scores where most of the bars are concentrated towards one end, it suggests that many students scored either high or low, resulting in a skewed distribution.

1. Frequency polygons are line graphs that represent the distribution of data.

2. They are constructed by plotting the mid-points of each class interval on the x-axis and the frequencies on the y-axis, then connecting these points with straight lines.

3. For example, if we have data on the number of cars passing through a toll plaza during different time intervals, we can construct a frequency polygon by plotting the mid-points of the time intervals on the x-axis and the frequencies on the y-axis.

1. The mean of a set of data is the average value and is calculated by adding up all the values in the set and dividing the sum by the total number of values.

2. For example, suppose you have the following data set: 5, 7, 10, 12, 15. The mean can be calculated by adding all the values (5 + 7 + 10 + 12 + 15 = 49) and dividing by the total number of values (5), resulting in a mean of 9.8.

1. To find the mean of a frequency distribution table, multiply each value in the table by its respective frequency, then sum up these products and divide by the total frequency.

2. For example, consider a frequency distribution table for the weights of students in a class. It may have different weight intervals and their corresponding frequencies. To find the mean, you would multiply each weight value by its frequency, sum up these products, and divide by the total frequency.

1. The median is the middle value of a set of data when arranged in ascending or descending order.

2. If the number of data points is odd, the median is the value at the center. If the number is even, the median is the average of the two middle values.

3. For example, in the data set {2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15}, the median is 5 since it's the middle value. In the data set {2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10}, the median is (5 + 7) / 2 = 6, as there are two middle values.

- Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood or chance of an event occurring.

- It is represented as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty.

- The basic principle behind probability is that the total probability of all possible outcomes of an event is equal to 1.

- Theoretical probability is based on the assumption that all outcomes are equally likely, while experimental probability is based on actual observed data.

- Probability can be expressed as fractions, decimals, or percentages.

- Probability of an event is calculated by dividing the number of favorable outcomes by the total number of possible outcomes.

- It is denoted by P(event) and is calculated as P(A) = (Number of favorable outcomes) / (Total number of possible outcomes).

- For example, if we flip a fair coin, the probability of getting heads (H) is 1 out of 2, so P(H) = 1/2.

- Complementary events are a pair of events where the occurrence of one means the non-occurrence of the other, and vice versa.

- The sum of the probabilities of complementary events is always 1.

- For example, if we consider the event of getting a head (H) or a tail (T) when flipping a coin, P(H) + P(T) = 1.

- A standard deck of playing cards has 52 cards, divided into four suits: clubs, diamonds, hearts, and spades. Each suit has 13 cards.

- There are 4 cards of each rank: Ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Jack, Queen, and King.

- The probability of drawing a specific card from a well-shuffled deck is 1 out of 52 (assuming all cards are equally likely to be drawn).

- Example 1: What is the probability of drawing a red card from a deck?

- Number of favorable outcomes: There are 26 red cards in total (13 diamonds + 13 hearts).

- Total number of possible outcomes: The deck contains 52 cards.

- P(Red) = 26/52 = 1/2.

- Example 2: What is the probability of drawing a face card (Jack, Queen, or King) from a deck?

- Number of favorable outcomes: There are 12 face cards in total (4 Jacks + 4 Queens + 4 Kings).

- Total number of possible outcomes: The deck contains 52 cards.

- P(Face card) = 12/52 = 3/13.

- Example 3: What is the probability of drawing a heart or a diamond from a deck?

- Number of favorable outcomes: There are 26 cards between hearts and diamonds (13 hearts + 13 diamonds).

- Total number of possible outcomes: The deck contains 52 cards.

- P(Heart or diamond) = 26/52 = 1/2.